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Bio 242 Exam #3 Notes

by: Kalyn Weaver

Bio 242 Exam #3 Notes Bio 242

Marketplace > University of Louisville > Bio 242 > Bio 242 Exam 3 Notes
Kalyn Weaver
U of L
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About this Document

These notes will prepare for the material covered on Exam #3
(Dr. Alexander, Dr. Corbitt, Dr. Eason, Dr. Fuselier, Dr. Mansfield-Jones)
Class Notes
BIO 242




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kalyn Weaver on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 242 at University of Louisville taught by (Dr. Alexander, Dr. Corbitt, Dr. Eason, Dr. Fuselier, Dr. Mansfield-Jones) in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.


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Date Created: 03/10/16
Kalyn Weaver  Bio 242 25 February 2016 Vertebrates Vertebrates are chordates with backbones  Phylum Chordata o Cephalochordate o Urochordata The earliest vertebrates were jawless: agnathans  Agnathans o Vertebrates o Lateral line system o Single nostril o Hagfish   Very slimy  Single nostril, mostly marine scavengers  Teeth are made of keratin, used to scrape  Uses slime to choke anything that tries to bite it and ties itself into a knot  o Lampreys  Mostly parasitic (eel­like body)  Keratin, tooth­like structures   Anic flagellant   Gnathostomes  o Major innovation, the jaw o Jaws: formed from anterior branchial arches   Food filters were modified to form gills  First gill o New modes of feeding  o Became more active o Lateral line system developed (aquatic)  Improved sensory systems  o Paired appendages (fishes: fins) o Placoderms   Big jaws, but no teeth (bony plates instead) o Chondrichthyes: the cartilaginous fishes  Sharks   Skates and rays   Marine, mostly predators  Cartilaginous skeleton (reversal)  Teeth!  Form in skin and rest on jawbone  Heavy  Two nostrils: olfaction (smelling), not breathing  Dead end sacs – as in most fishes (the water will come in a sac and will exit through the same sac/hole) o Traits of Chondrichthyes  Teeth form in skin and rest on jawbone, and flip 180 degrees as they grow   Very mobile skulls (aerodynamic when mouth is closed)  The manta ray – a planktivore  o Osteichthyes (bony fish/vertebrates)  Teeth embedded in jaw  Bony endoskeleton  Lungs  Two lineages  Ray­finned fishes: Actinopterygii o Most familiar bony fishes are in this group o Largest group of vertebrates o Fins supported by bony rays o Gills in chamber (different than sharks, cannot be seen  from the outside) o Swim bladder (a bag of gas that is used to take in and let  out gas)  Coral reef fish  Sarcopterygii – lobe­finned fishes (2 groups) and tetrapods  Sarcopterygii (lobe­finned fishes)  Coelacanths o Fat and heavy fins due to bones   Dipnoi­ the lungfish (two lungs) o The go up to the surface to breath and use their throat to push air back into their  lungs. o Have the ability to estivate (hibernating/they live in temporary bodies of water  and will go to the bottom when water begins to dry and drop their metabolism and wait until it rains to come out)  Tetrapoda  o Tiktaalik – transition from fishes  tetrapods  o Transitional Characteristics of Tetrapods  The eyes are on top of the skull  The skull is flat  They have a neck   Sill have fins, but its position is different like a wrist  Tetrapods o 4 limbs with digits o Neck o Pelvic girdle fused to backbone o Gills lost in adultsNostrils: are adapted for breathing air  Amphibians  o Modern amphibians  o Salamanders o Frogs and toads o Caecilians o 4 limbs o smooth, moist skin (respiration through skin) o tied to water (for reproduction) o live in humid, moist areas   Metamorphosis: larval form is different than adult form  o Tadpole  frog o Adult amphibians respire through moist skin, but most have lungs  Have large mouth to gulp air  o Salamanders look more like salamanders during their larva state   Long and skinny, means there is less surface area and they don’t have  lungs o Caecilian – parental care  Look like earthworms  No legs  All in the tropics Amniotes   Tetrapods with an amniotic egg o No longer tied to water for reproduction o 4 extraembryonic membranes  shock absorber, gas/nutrient exchange, waste storage o Makes its own pond!  Water contained in the embryonic egg o Use rib cage to ventilate lungs  Expand rib cage   Tetrapods with an amniotic egg o Reptiles  Lizards, snakes, crocodylians, turtles, birds o Mammals  Reptiles  Scales containing keratin o Protect against desiccation, injury  Ectothermic (except birds) o Do not use metabolism to control body temperature o Absorb external heat as main source of body heat (not metabolism) o Behavioral control of body temperature Turtles   Marine, terrestrial   Ribs are a part of their shell Diapsids (two­hole skulls)  Have a diapsid skull – two holes behind eye sockets   Crocodiles   Dinosauria  o Birds are the modern version of dinosaurs   Birds o Feathers o Endothermic (control their body temperature by their metabolism) o Flight adaptations: lose weight!  No bladder  Gonads shrink outside breeding season  Females have only one ovary  Hollow bones  No teeth (weight reduction and balance) o Have a large variety of bill shapes that are adapted to their diet  Lepidosauria  Tuataras (more primitive), lizards, and snakes o Predators o Wide size range  o Limbs lost in some lizards and in snakes  Forked tongues  o Paired sense organ in the roof of their mouth and is used to track prey   Snake skulls are incredible flexible  Mammalia   Single hole in skull behind eye socket ­ synapsid  Jaw is single pair of bones (strength, occlusion – how your teeth fit together)  Varied teeth  Hair  Milk   Endothermic   Layer of fat under skin (unique to the group) Monotremes  Lay eggs, lack nipples   Milk comes out into hairs  Platypus, ethnidas Marsupials and Eutherians  Higher metabolic rates  Embryo develops inside uterus – no eggs  Marsupials  Young born at very early stage  Marsupium   NA, SA, Australia (somewhat limited in range)  Tammar wallaby – small kangaroo   Eutheria  Young born at later stage  More complex placenta  o Sloth, giraffe, dolphin


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