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GY 102 Topic 4B-6 Lecture notes

by: Conner Jones

GY 102 Topic 4B-6 Lecture notes GY 102

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Geography > GY 102 > GY 102 Topic 4B 6 Lecture notes
Conner Jones
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lecture notes for Mrs. Pitts Topics 4B-6
Earth System Processes
Mary Pitts
Class Notes
gy 102
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Conner Jones on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GY 102 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Mary Pitts in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Earth System Processes in Geography at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 03/10/16
Geography Unit 2 Chapter 4B – Earthquakes and Volcanoes What is an earthquake?  Sudden movement of a block of earth’s crust along a geologic fault, releases accumulated strain  Destruction after earthquakes can include: fires, flooding, dam failure, etc.  Scales to rate earthquakes o Magnitude – amount of energy released o Intensity – effects on people and structures  Intraplate earthquake – earthquake within the crustal plates (New Madrid- central earthquake zone in US)  Can we control earthquakes (controlled release of strain) o Water reservoirs o Deep waste disposal o Underground nuclear explosion o This is a very controversial topic right now What is a volcano?  A vent in the surface of the earth through which magma and associated gases and ash erupt  Volcanic caldera- a large volcanic crater, typically one formed by a major eruption leading to the collapse of the mouth of the volcano  Their effects on us o Lava flows  Rhyolitic, andesitic, and basaltic lavas o Ash fall  Vegetation destroyed, water contamination, building damages, health hazards o Poisonous gas release  Carbon dioxide (CO )2  Sulfur dioxide (SO ) 2 Chapter 5 – Soils  Haiti only has 4% of natural vegetation cover left  Soil in Haiti is very baron  Madagascar is very bio diverse  In Madagascar there only 17% natural vegetation cover left  It takes 500 years to produce 1 inch of topsoil  Renewable resource – resources replenished by natural processes at a rate comparable to or faster that rate of consumption o Living: biomass o Non-living: soil/water  Nonrenewable resource – cannot be remade, regrown, or regenerated as fast as it is consumed o Fixed amount. Ex: oil, gas, coal  Soil science o Pedology – classification and description of soil o Edaphology – concerned with influence of soil on living things like plants  Porosity – amount of pore space  Permeability – measure of materials ability to transmit fluid gravel-high permeability clay-low permeability  Soil is derived from a starting material (parent material) whose composition, size, and sorting reflects its history  Soil horizons o Over time, soils develop distinct layers or soil horizons  Types of soils: o Oxisols  Deeply weathered, leached, oxidized, rich in Fe and Al (red brown color)  Formed under tropical conditions (hot and humid) o Aridosols  Formed in areas with lack of vegetation and water  Poorly developed layers with calcite and salts o Mollisols  Most productive soil, present in grasslands  Rich in organics o Gelisols  Soil above permafrost, very waterlogged and sensitive to disturbance  Rich in organic matter but unproductive, many mosses and lichens Chapter 6 – Weathering and Mass Wasting  Landmass denudation o Denudation – any process that wears away or rearranges landforms o Processes – weathering, mass movements, erosion, transportation, and deposition o Agents – flowing water, waves, wind, ice, and gravity  Factors influencing weathering o Character of bedrock o presence/absence of jointing o Precipitation o Climatic elements o Orientation o Vegetation o Soil water o Groundwater o Scale o Time  Exfoliation in granite – when the oldest layer of a rock is removed in shaves  One way calcite dissolves in water: o CaCO + 3 CO -2-- 3a 2++ 2(HC0 )3-  Mass movement/waste o Any type of downslope movement of materials in direct response to gravity  Can be rapid movement such as an avalanche  Soil creep – slow downward progression of rock and soil down a low grade slope; it can also refer to slow deformation of such materials as a result of prolonged pressure and stress (caused by expansion and contraction) (wet/dry, heat/cool, freeze/thaw)  Quake lake – lake caused by an earthquake in Montana  Factors that control slope stability o Angle of repose for material o Amount of water o Amount of vegetation o Fractures, cleavage, bedding


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