GY 102 Topic 4B-6 Lecture notes
GY 102 Topic 4B-6 Lecture notes GY 102
Popular in Earth System Processes
Popular in Geography
One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Conner Jones on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GY 102 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Mary Pitts in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Earth System Processes in Geography at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
Reviews for GY 102 Topic 4B-6 Lecture notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/10/16
Geography Unit 2 Chapter 4B – Earthquakes and Volcanoes What is an earthquake? Sudden movement of a block of earth’s crust along a geologic fault, releases accumulated strain Destruction after earthquakes can include: fires, flooding, dam failure, etc. Scales to rate earthquakes o Magnitude – amount of energy released o Intensity – effects on people and structures Intraplate earthquake – earthquake within the crustal plates (New Madrid- central earthquake zone in US) Can we control earthquakes (controlled release of strain) o Water reservoirs o Deep waste disposal o Underground nuclear explosion o This is a very controversial topic right now What is a volcano? A vent in the surface of the earth through which magma and associated gases and ash erupt Volcanic caldera- a large volcanic crater, typically one formed by a major eruption leading to the collapse of the mouth of the volcano Their effects on us o Lava flows Rhyolitic, andesitic, and basaltic lavas o Ash fall Vegetation destroyed, water contamination, building damages, health hazards o Poisonous gas release Carbon dioxide (CO )2 Sulfur dioxide (SO ) 2 Chapter 5 – Soils Haiti only has 4% of natural vegetation cover left Soil in Haiti is very baron Madagascar is very bio diverse In Madagascar there only 17% natural vegetation cover left It takes 500 years to produce 1 inch of topsoil Renewable resource – resources replenished by natural processes at a rate comparable to or faster that rate of consumption o Living: biomass o Non-living: soil/water Nonrenewable resource – cannot be remade, regrown, or regenerated as fast as it is consumed o Fixed amount. Ex: oil, gas, coal Soil science o Pedology – classification and description of soil o Edaphology – concerned with influence of soil on living things like plants Porosity – amount of pore space Permeability – measure of materials ability to transmit fluid gravel-high permeability clay-low permeability Soil is derived from a starting material (parent material) whose composition, size, and sorting reflects its history Soil horizons o Over time, soils develop distinct layers or soil horizons Types of soils: o Oxisols Deeply weathered, leached, oxidized, rich in Fe and Al (red brown color) Formed under tropical conditions (hot and humid) o Aridosols Formed in areas with lack of vegetation and water Poorly developed layers with calcite and salts o Mollisols Most productive soil, present in grasslands Rich in organics o Gelisols Soil above permafrost, very waterlogged and sensitive to disturbance Rich in organic matter but unproductive, many mosses and lichens Chapter 6 – Weathering and Mass Wasting Landmass denudation o Denudation – any process that wears away or rearranges landforms o Processes – weathering, mass movements, erosion, transportation, and deposition o Agents – flowing water, waves, wind, ice, and gravity Factors influencing weathering o Character of bedrock o presence/absence of jointing o Precipitation o Climatic elements o Orientation o Vegetation o Soil water o Groundwater o Scale o Time Exfoliation in granite – when the oldest layer of a rock is removed in shaves One way calcite dissolves in water: o CaCO + 3 CO -2-- 3a 2++ 2(HC0 )3- Mass movement/waste o Any type of downslope movement of materials in direct response to gravity Can be rapid movement such as an avalanche Soil creep – slow downward progression of rock and soil down a low grade slope; it can also refer to slow deformation of such materials as a result of prolonged pressure and stress (caused by expansion and contraction) (wet/dry, heat/cool, freeze/thaw) Quake lake – lake caused by an earthquake in Montana Factors that control slope stability o Angle of repose for material o Amount of water o Amount of vegetation o Fractures, cleavage, bedding
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'