HY 102 Lecture notes 3/1-3/10
HY 102 Lecture notes 3/1-3/10 HY 104
Popular in American Civilization Since 1865
Popular in History
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Conner Jones on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 104 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Bart Elmore in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see American Civilization Since 1865 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 03/10/16
HY 102 Lecture notes The Economy goes bust, 1929 Conservative backlash against change eighteenth amendment (1919) and prohibition o banned the sale of alcohol in the United States o happened because whites thought that crime was driven by immigrants drinking too much o had to go to “speakeasy’s” to get alcohol, underground bars The Red Scare (1919-1920) o The fear of communism taking hold in the United States, especially by immigrants coming into the country o Because of this, we pass strict immigration reform o J Edgar Hoover leads the Palmer Raids that root out communist within the United States, head of the Radical Division of Justice Dept. Resurgence of the KKK o 40,000 members of KKK march on Pennsylvania avenue in Washington DC problems fester in the American economy Warren G Harding, Calvin Coolidge’s and Herbert Hoover’s administration (1921-1932) o Warren G Harding “return to normalcy” Very pro business Reduced taxes on wealthy Involved in lots of scandals Dies in 1923 o Calvin Coolidge becomes president after Harding dies (1923- 1929) Revenue Act of 1924 and 1926- reduced tax burden on wealthy Does not support regulations to help farmers o Herbert hoover wins election of 1928 (1929-1933) “we in America today are near to the final triumph of poverty than ever before in the history of the land” stock market speculation and Black Tuesday (Oct 29, 1929) o low taxes on wealthy creates cash for investment o trading on debt run on the banks o over 1,500 banks fail in 1932 o even people that had money in the bank but not investing in the stock market lost it all because the banks were trading it out on margin deeper problems: too many goods not enough buyers o 5% of the nation held 1/3 of the nation’s wealth in 1929 As the depression worsens Hoover promotes volunteer relief (1930-1932) donates his entire salary to charity government shouldn’t be involved in fixing the depression, let the economy work itself out hoover ball- throwing medicine ball over volleyball net and trying to knock over other team The First New Deal 1932-1935 The Depression worsens as Herbert Hoover fails to act Hoovervilles – shantytown built by unemployed and destitute people during the Depression of the early 1930s Reconstruction Finance Corporation (1932) – provided financial support to state and local governments and made loans to banks, railroads, mortgage associations and other businesses Franklin Delano Roosevelt promises a New Deal Contracted polio but came back and elected governor or NY Hoover raises taxes with the Revenue Act of 1932 FDR’s first inaugural address, 1933 o “we have nothing to fear but fear itself” –FDR FDR was not o Communist party FDR was the GREAT EXPERIMENTER The first hundred days Bank holiday and going off the gold standard The federal deposit insurance corporation (FDIC) Glass-Steagall Act of 1933 – commercial banks and securities firms are separated. Banks cannot invest in the stock market, made banks hold your money. Later repealed by Bill Clinton in 1999. Reviving American business National industrial recovery act (NIRA) of 1933 – allowed businesses to come together and decide wages and prices Programs to create jobs The public works administration (PWA) The civilian conservation corps (CCC) 1933 – way to give young men jobs by giving them public relief jobs such as railroads, national parks, etc. The Tennessee valley authority (TVA) – federal agency that controls the electricity, irrigation and flood control from the dams and reservoirs along the Tennessee River Housing Federal housing authority (FHA) 1934 – provides loans to private banks who then loan money out to home buyers Programs to fix agricultural programs Agricultural adjustment act (AAA) 1933 – provides federal funds to farmers to keep them afloat in this time. The dust bowl The Second New Deal (1935-1938) Government Plans to end the dust bowl WPA (works progress administration) – created in 1935, creates millions of jobs where people built railroads, bridges, roads, etc. Resettlement administration (1935-1936) – moved struggling families from dust bowl areas into communities planned by the federal government, smart plan but doesn’t really work What ends the dust bowl? o In 1941, rains come Ogallala aquifer – a water table tapped into on the great planes to help prevent another dust bowl Bureau of reclamation (1902) and Hoover Dam o Hoover Dam not only provides water, but becomes single largest provider of electricity in the US JOBS: works progress administration Social security act of 1935 – provide for the general welfare by establishing a system of Federal old-age benefits for retired, disabled, unemployed, etc. Wagner act of 1935 – protect the rights of employees and employers to promote unionization Fair labor standards act of 1938 – helps create first federal minimum wage. Banned child labor in many industries (children below age of 14) Pearl Harbor and World War II Roots of World War 2 o Adolph Hitler becomes chancellor of Germany (1933) National socialist German workers party (Nazi Party) o Global depression breeds extremism o Failings of Versailles Treaty (blamed Germany for WW1/Germany to pay reparations) o Other fascists uprisings Benito Mussolini (Italy) Francisco Franco (Spain) o Hitler seeks a unified Germany, invades Austria in 1938 Early attempts to calm Hitler’s aggression o Munich agreement (1938) o Kristallnacht (Nov 9 , 1938) FDR and the US choose neutrality o National origins act of 1924 (restricted immigration) still in effect. Excluded large number of Jewish immigrants from entering US. Only about 8,500 Jews taken in out of about 30,000. o Neutrality act of 1935,36,37 – vowed to stay out of the war in Europe so we don’t reproduce WW1. Germany invades Poland (Sept. 1939) – leads Great Britain and France to declare war on Germany France falls (June 22, 1940) FDR wins a third term (1940) o 22 ndamendment passed in 1947 – limited president to two terms o FDR approves lend lease act of 1941 – principle of providing US military aid to foreign nations during WW2 Japan, pearl harbor, and America goes to war Pearl Harbor and America at War Pearl Harbor (Dec 7, 1941) o 24,000 killed, 18 war ships sunk o Jeanette Rankin – first us congresswoman elected in 1916; only person to vote against entering into WW2 America goes to war Operation torch (1942) – decision by allies not to attack across English Channel, instead attacked axis powers through French controlled North Africa The United States is transformed by war Government expansion: o Selective service act of 1940 – authorizes the federal government to draft males between the age of 21 and 35 into the military; first peace time draft enacted by government War production board and office of price management – controlled the prices of things being produced in the US and the WPB partners with business and creates government contracts that oversees businesses to produce machines, planes, and weapons for WW2 o Ford Motor co. was producing B24 bombers instead of cars during WW2 New technologies: the allure of synthetics o Companies have to create synthetics because the national government was conserving raw materials BF Goodrich produced synthetic rubber Monsanto Co. produces synthetic caffeine o New chemical pesticides (DDT) – chemical produced for troops, thrown on troops to prevent lice in eastern Europe; later used as an insecticide sprayed all over the country; restricted use in 1972 Economy booms and depression ends Women and minorities during wartime o Women and minorities getting jobs in the workforce 65% of everyone in aircraft industry were women after war, 1% before the war
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