Biology Diversity Notes Week 3
Biology Diversity Notes Week 3 BSCI-10110-002
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erin Shattuck on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSCI-10110-002 at Kent State University taught by Dr. Bade in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Biological Diversity in Biology at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
Biological Diversity Week 3 Notes Evidence towards evolution Darwin39s nches Peppered moth industrial melanism 3 Conditions for evolution 1 Variation must exist 2 Variation must lead to differences in tness 3 Variation must be genetically linked Fitness Ability to reproduce numerous successful offspring Arti cial Selection Certain phenotypic traits favored by humans EX dogs corn fruit y 0 Selection can produce major evolutionary changes Fossil evidence for evolution Age of fossil is determined either by depth or radioactive isotope Evolutionary transitions EX Archaeopeteryx links reptiles to birds Anatomic Evidence for evolution Homologous Structures Similar structure but different function EX wings of a bat and arms of a human 0 Early embryonic development human babies have gills and tail at some point during development Vestigial Structures Structures that seem to have no purpose EX Hip bones in a whale appendix in a human Concept of Species must account for 2 phenemena 1 Distinctiveness of species that occurred together 2 Connection that exist among different populations of the same species Speciation Process by which new species arise Methods Used to recognize new species Distinctivenessphenotypicay different Behavioral differences 0 Use different parts of habitat Sympatric Speciation Differentiation of species with a common geographic location Population Any group of individuals of a single species occupying a given area at the same time SubSpecies Within a species individuals in populations that occur in different areas may be distinct Biological Species Concept Members of a population that can mate with each other and produce viable offspring Reproductive Isolation Prezygotic Isolating Mechanism Prevent formation of a zygote 0 Geographic Isolation Ecological Isolation Behavioral Isolation mating rituals don39t work together Temporal Isolation Prevention of gamete formation 0 Mechanical Isolation Sex organs don39t work together Postzygotic Isolation o Hybridization produce infertile offspring OOOO Geooraphv of Speciation Populations do not need to be reproductively isolated for speciation to not occur Allopatric Speciation Occurs when populations are geographically isolated Sympatric Speciation Occurs with out geographic isolation Ex Disruptive isolation Adaptive Radiations Closely related species that have recently evolved from a common ancestor by adapting to different parts of the environment Few species and lots of resources EX Finches on Galapagos islands Victoria Lake Cichlids Character Displacement Natural selection favors those individuals that use resources not used by other species Key Innovation Something that allows a species to access resources Pace of Evolution Gradualism vs Punctuated Equilibrium Gradualism Accumulation of small changes through a long time Long periods of no change followed by rapid change Systematics Study of evolutionary relationships Phylogeny A hypothesis about patterns of relationships among species Cladistics Technique used to create phylogenies