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by: Jillian O'Connor


Jillian O'Connor
GPA 3.21
Introduction to Nutrition

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Introduction to Nutrition
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jillian O'Connor on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to at University of Oklahoma taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views.


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Date Created: 09/18/15
111113 Minerals norganic compounds required in the diet Macrominerals Calcium phosphorus magnesium Eectroytes sodium potassium chloride Microminerals lron zinc copper uoride iodine chromium Trace elements Calcium 1522 of body weight 99 in bones and teeth Accounts for about 25 of the weight of bones 1 inside cell Signaling More important than bones Cell will die without calcium lf calcium needed in cell will pull out of bones FuncUons Bone Formation Resting Resorption Reversal Formation Colagen forms Calcium and phosphorus deposited in collagen Osteoblasts create bone and osteoclasts bone resorption in tissue Replace 20 of bone each year Growth Formation gt Resorption Old Age Formation lt Resorption De ciency Osteopenia Low Bone Mass about 34 million American have osteopenia Osteoporosis Porous fragile bones Bone Mineral Density BMD is very low Affects gt 10 million in the US 80 are women Common in postmenopausal women lmmobiization leads to decreased bone formation Risk Factors for Osteoporosis Being Female Thin Jnache Advanced Age Cigarette smoking Excessive intake of alcohol Menopause Family history Bone density maximized in early 205 essential for young adults to get adequate calcium lncreased Ca requirements with age to minimize bone loss RDA 1000 mgday Average US intake for women is 500600 mgday Food Sources Dairy 300 mg in 8 oz milk 6 oz yogurt 200 mg in 1 oz cheese Fish with bones salmon sardines Forti ed with orange juice milk substitutes Nuts Whoe grains eafy green veggies DigestionAbsorption 2050 dietary absorbed ncreased by Vitamin D Lactose and milk proteins Decreased by Fiber High phosphorus without calcium Soda replacing milk in children39s diets De ciency Treatment Ca Carbonate most common Catrate OsCaI Oyst Cal Also in antacids like Tums Ca Citrate Malate More expensive but perhaps better absorption Citraca Don39t forget Vitamin D Toxicity UL 2500 mgday Hypercacemia high blood calcium levels Kidney Stones uid not soft drinks is critical Not seen with food calcium Calcium and Weight Management Epidemioogica data and clinical trials gt 3 servings of dairy results in signi cant reductions in adipose tissue mass in obese humans in absence of caloric restriction markedy accelerated weight and body fat loss when combined with caloric compared to low dairy diet Mechanism lron History Given to soldiers in 4000 BC when lost blood in battles Cured chlorosis in 16005 sickness in adolescent females characterized by pale skin FuncUons 75 in hemoglobin protein in red blood cells that binds oxygen for transport in blood hemogobin picks up oxygen from lungs deivers oxygen to myoglobin muscle protein that binds oxygen in muscle cells for use No iron no hemoglobin no energy De ciency Anemia decreased oxygencarrying capacity of the blood Vitamin BlZfolic acid de ciency misformed red blood cells lron de ciency no hemoglobin Symptoms fatigue weakness paleness red color oxygen in blood Atrisk chidren vegetarians menstruating women Needs RDA Men 19 8 mgday Women 1950 18 mgday 51 8mgday Pregnancy 27 mgday Structure Heme or nonheme Heme bound to heme structure in hemoglobin or myoglobin found in blood and muscle tissue welabsorbed 2025 Nonheme inorganic iron in plants supplements forti ed foods Not wellabsorbed 015 Food Sources Heme meat esp red meat Nonheme legumestofu raisins prunes moasses forti ed cereals cooking in cast iron skillets DigestionAbsorption lnhibited by Tannins tea Fiber Calcium lncreased by Vitamin C Acid quotMeat protein factorquot Toxicity Acute overdose on supplements ntestina damage bloody diarrhea vomiting liver failure usualy seen in children Iodine FuncUons Component of thyroid hormone reguates growth and brain development metabolism reproductive function hypothyroidism decreased basal metabolic rate hyperthyroidism increased basal metabolic De ciency is most common preventable cause of brain damage De ciency Goiter enlarged thyroid gland Thyroid gland grows because working overtime trying to produce thyroid hormone Once a worldwide de ciency until salt iodized stable when bound to sodium Food Sources odized salt Seaweed Fish and shell sh half a teaspoon of iodine does have enough sodium Fluoride 19305 noticed less dental cavities in areas with high uoride content in water drinking water now uoridated Func ons Helps with bone mineralization and hardening of tooth enamel Prevents demineralization of bone osteoporosis Reduces dental cavities No known quotessentialquot functions Food Sources Fluoridated water 02 mgcup Al 3mgday women 4 mgday men 1520 cups of tap water per day to meet needs amount of cavities went down 3040 Toothpaste and dental treatments Tea Seaweed De ciency No evidence for true de ciency higher risk for dental caries Toxicity Chronic overintake causes mottling of teeth not harmful acute toxicity can be lifethreatening but appropriate amount for brushing will not hurt children


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