Anthropology 101 Week 1 Notes
Anthropology 101 Week 1 Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kendall Cromartie on Wednesday September 3, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Miami taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 57 views.
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Date Created: 09/03/14
Anthropology Notes 82514 Introduction to Anthropology 0 Anthropology studies all humans past and present 0 Looking at similarities and differences bw us and great apesprimates 0 Biology and behavior are linked 0 Can help us understand culture 0 Ex structure of our stomachs constrains what we can eat 0 Large brain size is important but not the most important reason we are differentbiologically distinct 0 Bipedalism a key feature walking on 2 legs I We are the only obligate bipedal primates I Arises early in our evolutionary history 0 Lack of a tail 0 Reduced hairfur I Important when you consider thermoregulation ability to regulate body temperature 0 Sexually dimorphic I Difference in body size bW the males and females of our species 0 Opposable thumbs I Use our hands to make and do things I Determine the things we end up making and using 0 Dental features I Obtain and extract Wide variety of caloriesnutrients from food 0 Lifespan features I Prolonged infancy due to bipedalism and pelvic structure babies have to be born before their heads are too large so that they don t kill both themselves and the mother and reproductive lifespan 0 We live decades after reproductive viability 0 Social beings I Not equipped to operate alone in a kingdom of isolation 0 Diverse population I Extreme variation in physical features in humans 0 Adulthood I Providing solely for selves and family 0 Other species have proven to have intelligence surpassing human infants in certain situations 0 Orangutan using water to get peanut 0 7 million years ago was the arrival of homosapiens Split bW humans and primates 0 Circumnavigation 0 conquering the rest of the world 0 Why didn tcouldn t this occur for any other species 0 Collaboration and cooperation I Sharing ideas through language I Connection with other homosapiens I Individual survival is extremely hard even in this culture other humans make important inventions due to inheriting ideas from others etc 0 Culture and language revolutionized our species 0 Every generation inherits ideas from previous generations 82714 What is Time 0 We developed time o The Egyptians developed sundials Wa base 12 system then divided it hence why we have 24 0 Our daytoday existence is determined by hours and minutes and seconds 0 We seem to view time in our culture as being ahead or behind us the past is behind us you have tough times ahead of you 0 There are fundamental differences in how cultures view time for example some cultures see the future as being behind you some see time as owing uphill etc Sex and Gender 0 2 natural states Win humans that we call sex female amp male 0 Specific characteristics we are sexually dimorphic 0 Different reproductive capabilities 0 Chromosomal differences 0 Our culture has set ideas about the specifics of gender 0 This is being changed and reshaped every day which is being debated more often 0 Institutional cultures 0 From birth people in our society are brought up to uphold the set idealscharacteristicscuesperception of gender 0 Gender social exaggeration of biological categories 0 Ex Females naturally have higher voices than males but due to social exaggeration girls may begin speaking with a higher voice than they may actually have 0 Different cultures treathandle menstruation differently 0 Different ways in which you seek marriage partner up 0 Preferred mates differ greatly between cultures incest to our culture may be seen as normal in others 82914 Culture Language Biology 0 Human culturelanguagebiology are constantly changing 0 Change in biology Evolution O 0 Evolution Change in different geneallele frequencies over time I Which variation allows for more babies to be created over time Mutation Evolutionary change is not O O O O O Lamarckian I Lamarckian traits not inherited ex better physique because parent was a body builder tattoos etc I Culture change can be Lamarckian Entirely random Progressive Teleological I Not goal oriented doesn t give you the most traitsmutations that will be most useful to you just because you want them Social change not a good model for social change Evolutionary change 3 0 Genetic process 0 Descent with modification 0 Takes place on the scale of population not person to person 0 Over many generations Cultural change 3 o Descent wmodification o Lamarckian 0 Rapid I There is a lot more room for rapid change win cultural change than win biological 0 Can be progressive 0 Can be teleological ex want to get somewhere quickly but can t grow wings so build an airplanecar etc Language 0 Must change with time I As long as the needs of language users change so must the language 0 The great vowel shift I Shift in how long vowels were pronounced o Strongly related to cultural change Language change is O O O O Lamarckian Descent wmodification Progressive debatable Teleological
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