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Bio 1114 Week 4

by: Sean Bhatnagar

Bio 1114 Week 4 BIOLOGY 1114 - 0010

Sean Bhatnagar
GPA 2.03
Biological Sciences: Form, Function, Diversity, and Ecology

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Biological Sciences: Form, Function, Diversity, and Ecology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sean Bhatnagar on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOLOGY 1114 - 0010 at Ohio State University taught by Staff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Biological Sciences: Form, Function, Diversity, and Ecology in Biology at Ohio State University.


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Date Created: 09/18/15
Biology 1114 Week 4 There are traitsphenotypes that are both Genetic and learned Talked a lot about this Hardy Weinberg only works under speci c conditions 0 All offspring have an equal chance of survival and reproduction o Equals no selection 0 Large population size 0 Random events will have a large impact on small populations The HardyWeinberg requirements are integral to evolution 0 All offspring have an equal chance of survival and reproduction 0 Natural selection 0 Large Population size 0 Genetic drift 0 No new Alleles o Mutation and migration 0 Random Mating 0 Sexual selection 0 Geographic variations and clines Selection is the NONRANDOM differential survival and reproduction of particular phenotypes 2nCI component of quotevolution by natural seletionquot 0 1st is the orgin of genetic variation HA2 VgVp Strength of selection depends on the heritabilityhquot2 and on the degree of difference in tness among phenotypes Fitness De ned for a genotype and pertains to particular situations Fitness is the reproductive output R of all organisms bearing the genotype Fitness doesn39t mean anything related to exercise for species Reproductive output is the individual39s effort of all organisms bearing that genotype How many eggs are produced Based on Genotype and Environment What is the probability of fertilization Genotype and environment The interplay of the variables determines R tness Ex High number of propagules incurs a high energy investment for women so each typically gets less yolk or car They reproduce a lot and so they have certain amounts of energy per egg which comes from investment of women And Low investment per propagules may decrease survival rate Mom gives less nutrients to each egg Variables Number of individuals having offspring Number of reproductive propagules Number of reproducers x Number of eggs upper limit on reproductive output per cycle 0 Number of cycles per year and number of cycles per female lifespan both in uence population growth rate Number of cycles per year 0 Annual seasonal lunar cycles Age of sexual maturity Lifespan and Lifetime reproductive pro le Fertility and fecundity change over time Not just birth but Death 0 Reproductive senescence before death 0 This means they know when they will die and this can trigger reproductive output and some will stop reproducing after a certain age 0 Survival rate of propagules Factors that contribute to tness and population growth Number of reproductive females Number of offspring per cycle Number cycles per unit time Number cycles per female life Death rate of reproductive individual Survival rate of offspring In uences on Population size 0 Density Independent factors Effect is the same regardless of population size or density 0 Environmental phenomena Drought long winters etc 0 Increase mortality across the whole population thus decreasing amount of reproducing females 0 Density dependent factors Effect is modulated depending on population size or density 0 Supply food or other resources Resources notlimited for smaller populations but may become limiting if population increases 0 Disease may spread more effectively and pathogenspredators may increase in numbers in response to increase in prey density 0 Dependent factors integrate resources availability and competition with population growth Exam 1 is over chapters 2223 and very little of 14 on OCTOBER 2 4045 Multiple choice


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