Psych 364 Notes - Week 4
Psych 364 Notes - Week 4 Psyc 3640
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allie S on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 3640 at Clemson University taught by Eric McKibben in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Industrial Psychology 3640 in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
Review Goals of Psychology 0 Describe o Predict 0 Control 0 Explain 3 branches 0 Organizational controllingmanipulating the worker 0 Human Engineering environmental 0 Personnel finding the best fit personalitywise Chapter 3 Intro to individual differences Individual Differences Dissimilarities between or among 2 or more people Even Twins are different they re molded differently from different experiences making them unique 0 We try and take the uniqueness of an individual and match them as best as possible to a jobenvironmentteam in order to maximize work Often categorizeclassify by qualities and traitslabels n We measure each of these allowing us to compare and contrast seeing differencescommonalities between two individuals Background 0 1890 Cattell amp concept of mental testquot 0 0 Differential psychology 0 Psychologists that study the differences amongst individuals 0 Differences that could be used to find a fitting environment abilities interests mentalcognition physical knowledge levels all SHAPE a person they differentiate us Psychometrics 0 Early IO focused on INTELLIGENCE on basic mental abilities measured 0 Thus psychology was combined with metrics World War I amp intelligence tests 0 Wanted to measure intelligence to strategically place men in the war based on mental ability in order to win the war early IO II g or general mental ability Varieties of individual differences Cognitive ability amp the gocentric model Physical ability or disability Personality Interests Knowledge a knowledge base is different from intelligence Emotion the capacity the reaction drawn the softer skills how people will handle a job Anger usually has a negative relation with performance but sometimes is positively related ie coaching sports army police officer All of these will predict performance in some way Intelligence is inherent knowledge is accumulated Behavior in Organizations and Its Outcomes Advancing the goals of the organization Performance effectiveness The organizational experience Climate and culture Interpersonal relations and con ict Identi cation with the organization Predict performance but also the CONTEXT Angry players against the other team is good angry teammates is bad Fundamental assumptions in applying individual differences Model These are assumed drawn from experiences and studies but may not always be true they are FAIR assumptions They have ALL been tested and are fairly accurate 0 Adults have variety of attributes that are relatively stable over a period of time o Interests abilities intelligence skills etc do not fluctuate often IQ stays pretty much the same over time There is often a feeling of dynamic in a person people like to think they are constantly evolving People differ with respect to those attributes Relative differences among people on these attributes remain even after training 0 Different jobs require different attributes 0 These attributes can be measured KSAOs 0 They can be measured and used to compare Taxonomy of abilities o Fleishman s taxonomy of 52 abilities divided into broad categories of Cognitive abilities Physical abilities Perceptualmotor abilities Each individual ability may predict ex singers 0 Ability auditory allows them to identify pitches Somewhat related to that is perceptual ability 0 Ability Sight ability to differentiate between colorsvisuals 0 Not the same but loosely related perceptual Need to be fine grand in our researching of these people But we made categories Cognitive Physical Perceptual 3 higherorder categories 1 Cognitive abilities 2 Physical abilities 3 Perceptualmotor abilities 1 COGNITIVE ABILITY IQ problemsolving Intelligence mental ability cognition reasoning memory processing speeds Definitional Issues in Intelligence 0 Many people consider the terms intelligence IQ cognitive ability and mental ability to be synonyms for one another We will make some distinctions o IQ is a historical term that stands for intelligence quotientquot term is popular with laypersons but is generally not used by scientists 0 Mental ability and cognitive ability are current terms that scientists often use interchangeably 0 Cognitive ability and mental ability often refer to specific abilities such as memory or reasoning intelligence refers to general intellectual capacity often called g for GMA Intelligence as g Involves the ability to reason plan solve problems comprehend complex ideas amp learn from experience 0 A high g high intelligence level Is g important at work Yes 0 Intelligence or g broad general capability describes person s ability to learn from experience 0 Tjob complexity T predictive value of general intelligence tests 0 Tend to LEARN from mistakes quick learners are crucial o g is one of the best overall performance predictors complex jobs need someone who can growadapt quick Carroll s Hierarchical Model 9 Broad abilities I Fluid Crystallized General Visual Auditory Retrieval Cognitive intelligence intelligence memory perception perception ability speediness Specific abilities 2 SENSORY ABILITIES 0 Vision 0 Touch 0 Taste Smell 0 Hearing Kinesthetic Feed back 3 PHYSICAL ABILITIES Hagan s Muscular Cardiovascular Movement general Strength Endurance Duality Factors Hogan39s Basic Descriptors Fleishman39s Static Explosive Dynamic Stamina Extent Gross Gross and Reilly39s Strength Strength Strength Flexibility Body Body Basic Trunk Dynamic Equilibrium Coordination Descriptors Strength Flexibility