HA & P Chapter 6 Lesson 9 Notes
HA & P Chapter 6 Lesson 9 Notes Bio 2010
Popular in Human Anatomy and Physiology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biology
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsie Carter on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 2010 at University of Colorado Colorado Springs taught by Sabine Allenspach in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology in Biology at University of Colorado Colorado Springs.
Reviews for HA & P Chapter 6 Lesson 9 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/10/16
Bone Tissue 1. characteristics of bone tissue A. dense matrix, containing: a. deposits of calcium slats b. osteocytes: mature bone cells in a lacunae, around blood vessels B. canaliculi a. form pathways for blood vessels b. exchange of nutrients and waste C. periosteum a. covers outer surfaces of bone b. 2 layers- outer (fibrous layer, denser) and inner (cellular) 2. bone matrix A. minerals a. inorganic components of bone b. 2/3 s calcium phosphate and reacts with calcium hydroxide which creates hydroxyapatite (crystals) c. which incorporates other calcium slats and ions B. matrix proteins a. organic components of bone b. 1/3 is made of proteins (collagen), it builds framework of bones 3. bone cells A. 2% of bone tissue is cells B. bone contains 4 types of cells: a. osteocyte- mature bone cell b. osteoblast- immature bone cell c. osteoprogenesis- stem cell d. osteoclast 4. osteocytes A. mature bone cell B. don’t divide C. in between lamellae of bone matrix D. connect by cytoplasmic extensions through the canaliculi n lamellae E. functions: repair damaged bone and maintain protein and mineral content of the matrix 5. osteoblasts A. osteogenesis: creation of bone tissue B. osteoid: matrix produced by osteoblast but hasn’t undergone calcification, osteoblasts surrounded by bone become osteocytes 6. osteoprogenitor or osteogenic cells A. mesenchymal stem cells divide and differentiate into osteoblasts a. location: endosteum and inner layer of periosteum b. function: I. assist in fracture repair II. maintain population of osteoblasts 7. osteoclasts A. giant, multinucleate cells B. function: a. absorb and remove bone matrix b. secrete acids and protein digestive enzymes to dissolve bone matrix and release stored minerals, which helps with reabsorption C. originate: same stem cells as monocytes and macrophages 8. homeostasis A. bone building by osteoblasts and bone recycling by osteoclasts must balance a. decrease of calcium= PTH is produced by parathyroid gland which increases the reabsorption of calcium by the kidneys, then released to the bone b. increase of calcium= release calcitonin by the thyroid gland, which deposits calcium in bone tissue Compact bone and Spongy Bone 1. the structure of compact bone A. osteon is the basic or functional unit B. osteocytes in lamellae of compact bone C. around central canal or Haversian canal containing blood vessels, nerves and lymphatic vessels D. perforating canals: perpendicular formation to central canal and carry blood vessels into bone and bone marrow E. circumferential lamellae: wrapped around long bones and bonds osteons together 2. the structure of spongy bone A. no osteons B. no blood vessels in trabeculae C. matrix forms open networks D. red bone marrow a. in between trabeculae b. forms red blood cells, erythropoiesis c. supplies nutrients to osteocytes E. yellow bone marrow a. in medullary cavity b. stores lipids, is an energy reserve F. is much lighter than compact bone, which reduces the weight of the skeleton 3. weight-bearing bones A. the femur transfers weight from the hip joint to the knee joint a. the femur can withstand 10-15 times the body weight before fracturing 4. compact bone is covered with a membrane A. periosteum on the outside a. covers all bones except parts enclosed in synovial joint capsules b. perforating or sharpey’s fibers: I. collagen fibers (periosteum compact bone) II. fibers are continuous 5. function of periosteum A. isolating bone B. participates in bone growth and repair (cellular layer) C. provide route for nervous supply D. endosteum on the inside a. an incomplete cellular layer: I. lines trabeculae II. lines central canal of osteon III. like the periosteum IV. contains osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteoprogenerator Bone Formation and Growth 1. bone development A. grow until age 25 B. osteogenesis a. bone formation C. ossification a. process of replacing other tissue with bone tissue I. endochondrial II. intramembranous ossification D. calcification a. depositing calcium salts b. occurs during bone ossification and in other tissues 2. endochondrial ossification A. all bones inferior to the skull (begins with formation of cartilage model, hyaline) 3. 7 steps for endochondrial ossification A. as cartilage enlarges, chondrocytes near the center of shaft increase, matrix is reduced and form struts that begin calcify, chondrocytes die and disintegrate, creating cavities within cartilage B. cells of the periosteum convert to osteoblasts. Cartilage calcifies, blood vessels grow, and a periosteal bone collar forms around diaphysis C. primary ossification center form: blood vessels penetrate the cartilage, fibroblasts differentiate into osteoblasts- produce spongy bone D. remodeling occurs creating medullary cavity, osseous tissue of shaft thickens, growth involves increase in length and diameter E. secondary ossification centers form in epiphysis, capillaries and osteoblasts have migrated to epiphyses F. epiphyses fill with spongy bone replacing the hyaline cartilage. Metaphysis (cartilaginous region) also call epiphyseal plate separates epiphysis from diaphysis. Bone replaces cartilage within diaphysis and epiphysis, except articular and epiphyseal cartilage. G. at puberty: production of epiphyseal cartilage slows and osteoblasts activity increases causing epiphyseal closure. Epiphyseal line remains 3. intramembranous ossification A. occurs in mesenchymal tissue (or fibrous CT) a. dermal ossification (dermal bones) b. frontal, parietal, mandible, clavicle 4. blood supply of mature bones A. nutrient artery and vein a. single strain of large blood vessels b. center diaphysis through a nutrient foramen c. femur has more than one pair B. metaphyseal vessels a. epiphyseal cartilage ensuring that bone growth occurs C. periosteal vessels a. blood to superficial osteons b. secondary ossification centers Calcium Homeostasis 1. the skeleton as a calcium reserve A. bone stores calcium and other minerals B. calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'