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Digestive and Excretory System

by: Camille Chai

Digestive and Excretory System

Marketplace > California State Polytechnic University > Biology > Digestive and Excretory System
Camille Chai
CSU Pomona

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Biology Basics- Digestive and Excretory System
Digestive System, Biology, Human Body, Excretory System
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This 5 page Reader was uploaded by Camille Chai on Wednesday September 3, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at California State Polytechnic University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 93 views.

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Date Created: 09/03/14
Chapter 30 Digestive and Excretory System Section 30 1 Organization of the Human Body Organization of the Body 0 The levels of organization in each part of the body work together to carry out the major body functions 0 Cells o Basic unit of structure and function in living things o Specialized cells bone cells blood cells muscle cells uniquely suited to perform a particular function 0 Tissues o Group of cells that perform a single function 0 Epithelial 39 Lines the interior and exterior body surfaces 39 Protection absorption and excretion of materials 0 Connective 39 Binding of epithelial tissue to structures support and transport of substances 39 Provides support and protection 0 Nervous 39 Receive and transmitting nerve impulses to and from all parts of the body o Muscle 39 Voluntary and involuntary movements 0 Organs 0 Group of different types of tissues that work together to perform a single function or several related functions o Eye all four types of tissue working together for a single function sight 0 Organ Systems o A group of organs that perform closely related functions Homeostasis 0 The relatively constant internal physical and chemical conditions that organism maintain despite changes in internal and external environments 0 Maintaining a controlled stable internal environment Section 302 Food and Nutrition Food and Energy 0 Molecules in food contain chemical energy that cells use to produce ATP thus providing energy for daily activities Food also supplies raw materials your body needs to build and repair tissues 0 Energy 0 When food is burned the energy is converted into heat Calorie o Calorie amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of lg of water by 1 degree Celcius o 1 dietary Calorie 1000 calories or 1 kilocalorie kcal 0 Raw Materials 0 Some raw material in food are needed to make enzymes lipids in cell membranes and even DNA o Food contains substances that your body needs but cannot manufacture Nutrients 0 Water o Human body needs water because many of the body s processes take place in water o Dehydration not enough water is taken in to replace what is lost 39 Leads to problems with many body systems 0 Carbohydrates o Simple carbohydrates monosaccharaides and disaccharides o Starches broken down by the digestive system and molecules are absorbed into the blood and carried to the cell throughout the body o Fiber 39 In wholegrain breads bran fruits vegetables 39 Complex carbohydrate cellulose ber 39 Body cannot digest cellulose 39 Helps muscles move food and waste throughout digestive system 0 Fats o Help the body absorb fatsoluble vitamins o Part of cell membranes nerve cells and certain hormones o Protect and insulate body organs source of stored energy 0 Saturated Fats 39 Only single bonds between the carbon atoms in fatty acids each carbon has the maximum number of hydrogen atoms o Unsaturated Fats 39 One or more double bonds between carbon acids 39 Vegetable oils o Trans Fats 39 Processed fats 39 When manufactures modify unsaturated fats in vegetable oils by adding hydrogen to them 0 Proteins o Supply raw materials for growth and repair of structures eg skin amp muscle o Create enzymes that control cellular chemistry by increasing rates of chemical reactions o Can also be used as energy sources when other nutrients are in short supply o Polymers of amino acids 39 Amino acids obtained from the food you eat 0 Vitamins o Organic molecules that the body needs in small amounts o Used to help perform chemical reactions o Tools that help put proteins fats carbohydrates building blocks of the body together 0 Obtained from food 0 Minerals o Inorganic nutrients that the body needs in small a mounts 0 Each mineral performs a certain function o Constant supply is needed to replace those lost in sweat urine and wastes Nutrition and a Balanced Diet 0 Balanced diet provides nutrients in adequate amounts and enough energy for a person to maintain a healthful weight 0 Balancing Your Diet 0 Food labels provide general information about nutrition and specific information about the product o Used to determine whether you re consuming enough vitamins and minerals o More active greater energy needs requires more Calorie intake 0 Maintaining a Healthful Weight o Inactive lifestyles and highCalorie diet contributing factors to growing rate of obesity o Regular physical activity 39 Maintain a healthful weight by burning excess Calories 39 Strengthens the heart bones and muscles Section 303 The Digestive System Functions of the Digestive System 0 Converts food into small molecules that can be used by the cells of the body 0 Four Phases o Ingestion 39 Process of putting food into your mouth opening of the digestive tract o Digestion 39 Mechanical Digestion 0 Physical breakdown of large pieces of food into smaller pieces 39 Chemical Digestion 0 Enzymes break down food into the small molecules that the body can use 0 Absorption 39 Small molecules are absorbed by cells in the small intestine 39 Molecule enter the circulatory system from the small intestine and are transported throughout the body o Elimination 39 Materials that cannot be digested and absorbed by the body eg cellulose travels to through the large intestine and is eliminated from the body as feces The Process of Digestion 0 One way tube that passes through the body 0 The Mouth o Mechanical Digestion chewing o Chemical Digestion digestive enzymes in saliva o Teeth 39 Mechanical work of digestion 39 Incisors cuspids and bicuspids cut into and tear the food 39 Molar grinds crush food into a fine paste that can be swallowed 39 Tongue moves food around so it can come in contact with teeth 0 Saliva O 39 Salivary glands secrete saliva while the teeth are at work helps to moisten the food and makes it easier to chew I Enzymes 0 Amylase begins to break the chemical bonds in starches forming sugars 0 Lysozyme ghts infection by digesting the cell walls of many bacteria that may enter the mouth with food Tongue and throat muscles push the clump of food bolus down the throat 39 Enters the back of the throat pharynx 39 Flap of connective tissue epiglottis closes over the opening to the trachea 0 Prevents food from moving into air passageways 39 Enters the esophagus 0 The Esophagus O O Bolus passes through the esophagus into the stomach Peristalsis Wave of muscle contractions that pushes the food down the esophagus Thick ring of muscle Cardiac Sphincter closes the esophagus preventing contents to ow back 39 Relax to allow food to pass to the stomach 0 Stomach O O 0 Large muscular sac Chemical Digestion 39 Lining of the stomach contains millions of microscopic gastric glands that release substances into the stomach 0 Some glands produce hydrochloric acid 0 Others release an enzyme Pepsin o Breaks proteins into smaller polypeptide fragments 0 Some glands produce mucus o A uid that lubricates and protects the stomach wall o Mechanical Digestion 39 Contractions of the stomach s three smooth muscle layers churn and mix the swallowed food 39 Churning causes further breakdown of food and allows enzymes to have greater access to the food 39 Chyme is produced Liquid thick mixture 39 Pyloric Valve located between the stomach and small intestine opens the chime begins to move into the small intestine 0 Small Intestine O Enters the duodenum first part of the small intestine 39 Where almost all of the digestive enzymes enter the intestine Where most chemical digestion and absorption of food occurs Chyme mixes with enzymes and digestive uids from the pancreas the liver and the linings of the duodenum Pancreas 39 Located behind the stomach 39 Produce hormones that regulate blood sugar 39 Produces enzymes that break down carbohydrates proteins lipids and nucleic acids 39 Produces sodium bicarbonate a base that neutralizes stomach acid as chime enters the duodenum o The Liver and Gallbladder 39 Liver produces bile uid loaded with lipids and salts 0 Bile stored in gallbladder 39 When fat is present in the duodenum gallbladder releases bile into the small intestine 39 Bile breaks up the fat into smaller droplets allowing more enzymes to reach the small fat droplets and break them down Absorption and Elimination 0 Most nutrients are absorbed through the walls of the small intestine 0 Large intestine absorbed water and several vitamins and prepares waste for elimination from the body 0 Small Intestine o Occurs after the chemical digestion is completed o Chyme now a rich mixture of small and medium sized nutrient molecules that are ready to be absorbed o Villi Fingerlike projections located in the inner walls of the small intestine 39 Folded surface enormous surface area for absorption 39 Covered with tiny projections microvilli 39 Slow wavelike contractions move the chime along the surface microvilli absorb nutrients o Carbohydrates and proteins absorbed into the capillaries in the villi Fat and fatty acids absorbed by lymph vessels o Chyme is nutrient free as it leaves the small intestine leaving only water cellulose and other indigestible substances behind o As material leaves the small intestine and enters the large intestine it passes by a saclike organ called appendix 0 39 Produces cellulose and other materials 0 Large Intestine 0 Also called colon o Remove water from the undigested material that is left 0 Water absorbed quickly across the wall of the large intestine leaving behind the undigested materials o Bacteria present in the large intestine produce compounds that the body absorbs and uses eg Vitamin K 0 Elimination o Feces concentrated waste material that remains after most of the water has been removed 0 Moves to the rectum and eliminated from the body through the anus Diarrhea not enough water is absorbed o Constipation too much water is absorbed from undigested materials 0


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