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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Snehi Christian on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 150 at a university taught by Bethany Bowling in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.
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Date Created: 03/10/16
Cells division can take place in many ways. Some of the methods are: Binary fission, Mitosis, meiosis, etc. Prokaryotic cells divide using the Binary fission method. In this process the cell replicates their genetic material, elongates and then splits into two to form two a daughter cells. It only takes around 20 minutes or so for this process to occur. E.coli is an example of such kind of cell division. Eukaryotic cell division are complexed because it contains membrane bound organelles that needs to be divided or reconstructed in the daughter cell. Eukaryotic cells undergo either mitosis or meiosis type of cell division. In mitosis the chromosomes (i.e. 23 pairs) gets divided into two identical sets in the cell nucleus and then each set is put into its own nucleus to produce a new daughter cell. There are many stages that occurs in the mitosis cell division they are: M Phase: It consists of mitosis and cytokinesis. Mitosis has 5 cell stages in it namely 1) Prophase 2) Prometaphase 3) Metaphase 4) Anaphase and 5) Telophase. After the process of mitosis a large cell with two identical nucleus is formed. During Cytokinesis the division of cytoplasm occurs and the large cell formed with two nucleus during the mitosis stage gets separated and two identical cells are formed. Interphase: It consist of three different phases the cell spends the most time in the interphase. The 3 stages of interphase are: 1) G Ph1se – This the main growth phase her the cells grows in size and gets prepared for DNA replication. 2) S Phase- In this stage the DNA in the cell is replicated and the number of chromosomes is doubled. 3) G 2hase – In this stage the cells grows and gets ready for the process of mitosis. The chromosomes begin to get condensed. G 0hase- The cells that are not actively dividing enter this phase this is a non- dividing phase / resting phase. The chromosomes that are replicated during the S phase bind to each other through a structure called centromere and the two strands of chromosome that are bound together are called sister chromatids. Centrosome- A structure that organizes microtubules during mitosis. It gets replicated during the interphase of the mitotic division. The centrosomes are together near the nucleus. Mitotic Spindles – It is structure made up of microtubules and proteins. It helps to pull the chromosomes apart during cell division. Kinetochores- The microtubules in the mitotic spindles gets attached to the chromosome centromere trough kinetochore protein complex. Prophase- During this phase the chromosomes starts to become condescended that could be seen in light microscope and the nuclear envelop starts to disintegrate. The mitotic fiber starts taking its shape. Prometaphase- The nuclear envelop is completely dissolved by this stage. Kinetochore attaches to the centromere of the chromosome, getting ready for the metaphase. Metaphase- In this phase the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell with the sister chromatids facing opposite to each other. Anaphase- The cohesion protein that is in between the two sister chromatids to get them together is released to separate them and then the separated chromosome is pulled apart to the end of the cell by the spindle fibers attached to it. Telophase- The nuclear envelop starts forming again and forming two separate daughter nuclei. Cytokinesis: Cleavage furrow: occurs in animal cell. A narrow groove is formed in the middle of the dividing cell. Actin filaments for a ring in the inside of the cell pinching the two cells separate. In Plant cells as the have a cell wall, vesicles are formed by the Golgi apparatus that line up in the middle forming a cell plate which separates the two cell. The neurons do not divide in the brain but new neurons could be formed by the hippocampus of the brain.