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Intro to American History

by: Courtney Buble

Intro to American History

Marketplace > George Washington University > History > Intro to American History
Courtney Buble

Andreas Meyris

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Lecture from the second class (8/27/14) On Native Americans
Andreas Meyris
One Day of Notes
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This 8 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Courtney Buble on Wednesday September 3, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to a course at George Washington University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 88 views.


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Date Created: 09/03/14
Native America 1 Settlement of North America 2 The American Population 3 Indian Social and Cultural Diversity 4 Two Indian Cultures a Pueblo b The Sioux Backtrack On Monday we talked about the European context in England Spain was the world s superpower When the Spanish came to the new world they saw there were other people here Thought they were in India Columbus 1 American Indians The migration of humans to America probably began 1500 to 30000 years ago The ice age was going on So much water was frozen that the sea level was much lower than they are today There was a land bridge between Asian and North America Beringa No glaciers there U vhf 1 0 v r People were moving in North America and then onto South America The Meadow Rockshelter in western PA was likely inhabited as early as 16000 years ago Carbon dating When something living dies plant animal the carbon begins to breakdown By measuring one isotope to another can approximate how long its been since it s died It s chemistry 16000 years ago Meadow Rockshelter In recent years it hasn t been archeological evidence gt mainly DNA DNA is used to trace people s ancestors Scientists tested contemporary Indians with other population groups in the world SHows that ancestors of American Indians came from Asia Land bridge theory is consistent Also seems to suggest it Was considerably older Human life originated in Africa 100000 years ago Moved into asia then ER then N America The DNA evidence suggests three Waves of migration to the Americas NaDene EskimoAleut Amerind 2 Amerindian Population The impact of Native Americans on the coming of Whites was devastating Diseases spread Everywhere 2000 Indians in late 1800s How much of a decline Larger decline more important it is 1900s 500th anniversary of Columbus things came to a head American Indian Holocaust by David Stannard about Columbus s conquest of the new World American Indian Holocaust and Survival by russell Thornton Before 1970s Indian population was too small James Mooney concluded in 1910 that there were 12 million Indians north of Mexico at rst white contact His estimates included Northeast56000 Southeast 166000 Plains219000 Southwest72000 California260000 Indian Culture areas y i39fEi39 391 4 quot u JrJ E 5 L Mexico is a different story Mooney realized these estimates weren t good His estimates could not be right These white diseases were spread from tribe to tribe Smallpox whooping cough etc There was a major epidemic of smallpox in New England In the 1970s they tried new Ways to find the population Then they came up with much higher estimates 1980s 18 million 16x mooney s estimate A little too much 12 million is too small 18 million is too high The most unknowable thing in the world gt further research won t help There were around 600000 around 1800 Population then decreased Lone Dog s Winter Count at showing a pictograph representing an 18011802 smallpox epidemic among the eastem Sioux Spiral shape for pictographs No whites are depicted until 1825 There were whites before that Native American population before white settlement 3 Things were not settled before whites came They were moving around Adopting new cultures It s very hard to generalize There are dozens of Indian lang groups aquot 1 There are no common languages Today virtually all are dead languages Few have survived but not many Number of speakers are few Some of these languages were recorded before they disappeared but not all Indian modes of subsistence were also different agricultureNE SE Mesoamerica SW huntinggreat plains prairies sub arctic huntinggatheringpart of great basin fishing Indians had well established trading networks Was very elaborate 4 Two groups of Indians a Pueblo Indians First area settled was in Mexico by the Spanish Guam Rio Grande and New Mexico Indian Cultures c 110 Indians of the Ancient SW Hohokam Anasazi Mogollon UTAH COLORADO They began abandoning these places like Chaco canyon around 1150 We know these dates from archaeology and looking at tree rings They began moving to smaller settlements The pueblos began to be built in the 1200s They were agricultural Indians using irrigation The three sisters com beans and squashwere a staple of many American Indian tribes They domesticated turkeys Pueblo developed Kachina religion were called cloud spirits circa 1878 They would dress up as various clouds Things were constantly changing 1850 new group arrived Apaches Immediately began the enemies of the Pueblos Indians were NOT living the same way before the whites came b The Sioux Sioux is a white name They called themselves the Lakota Sioux are the classic American Indians George Catlin Sioux Indians Hunting Buffalo 1835 Most of the sioux were living in the plains of minnesota They slowly moved west onto the plains They didn t have horses so this was hard IL al EITgt u MIIERETIGIEI Had to get buffalo over a cliff Would scare them into stampeding Not very efficient Early 1700s the Sioux get the horse from the Spanish last group to do so Idea of the Columbian exchange The horse was part of this from Spanish New Mexico Many other things were brought from New World to Europe ex crops Sioux increased and became more aggressive after they received the horse Sioux had more enemies than friends Pushed other tribes out of the way Gained control of the crow indians Sioux were expansionary George Catlin battle between sioux and sac and fox circa 1846 They were a nomadic tribe Europeans created even more in ux in the new world It was not a stagnant society


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