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Week 8 Notes ANTH 102

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Week 8 Notes ANTH 102 ANTH 102


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These notes cover Week 8 material - Domestication in Africa and Asia, Domestication in Mesoamerica
Intro to Archaeology
Rory Dennison
Class Notes
Anthropology, archeology
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by vscobee2 on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 102 at University of Illinois at Chicago taught by Rory Dennison in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 172 views. For similar materials see Intro to Archaeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Illinois at Chicago.

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Date Created: 03/10/16
Week 8 Domestication in Africa and Asia  Food Production in Africa o Very diverse because the continent is so large o Animals used 1 st  Cattle as food  Possibly began around 10000BC  Solid evidence that it happened by 8800BC  Donkeys as transport (a pack animal)  By 4600BC o Plants a few thousand years after animals  Groundnut, millet (a cereal grain; important grain resource), rice,  sorghum; coffee much later (in the last 200 years) o Pastoralism  It is a method of production different from agriculture  Almost entirely animal­based (animals over 50% of human diet)  Based on the domestication of animal herds  Consists of tending to them and moving them between pastures  Cattle, goat, sheep, etc.  Meant that people were mobile  Had less permanent settlements and seasonal semi­permanent  settlements o Nabta Playa  Cooler, wetter climate (Late Pleistocene)  There was a large lake in the Early Holocene (9000BC) which led to more  water resources  Area was good for plant/animal domestication  Early Neolithic:  Pottery: early and minimal usage, sporadic occurrences, had  ceremonial purposes only, used as a status symbol, not used for  day­to­day activities  Cattle bones found outside of their ideal environment = proof that  humans were beginning to influence where cattle were living (the  start of domestication)  Mobile groups present  Residential site: 7100­6900BC  Multiple houses – round, made of mud/animal hide/ wood  posts/woven grass, built in rows because of the topography  Fall through winter occupation and resources  Proof of plant collecting and processing – earliest use of sorghum  and ziziphus  Cow domestication in 3 events  1­SW Asia  2­India  3­Africa (controversy over whether cows were domesticated here  or brought in from somewhere else)  Middle Neolithic:  6300­5600BC  Addition of goats and sheep  Lots of variation between sites because of seasonal occupation  Larger, more permanent groups  Houses and sites form  Ceremonial centers appear – used for a specific purpose, not for  living  N.P.  7500BP o Megalithic monuments – in circles, in a line, used for  astronomical events (solstices and equinoxes) o Cattle burials  8000BP o Sheep, goats from SW Asia o Cattle used more  Late Neolithic:  5500­4200BC  Still mobile but more intensive  Population growth  Ceremonial remains get bigger (megaliths, burials)  Start to domesticate plants toward the end  New Guinea (SE Asia) o Beginning of Holocene o Less islands, more larger land masses – this changes when the glaciers melt o Plants: Bananas, sugar cane, yams o No animal domesticates o Humans in Australia by 40­60kya  Bobongara Hill in Papua  New Guinea at 40kya  Lake Mungo at 40kya  Artifacts possibly 56­60kya o Kuk Swamp  Evidence of plant cultivation dates to 8000BC  Very tropical and wet = plant remains disintegrate  Deliberately­made drainage ditches  Evidence of samples at the bottom of ditches  Microscopic evidence of taro starch grains from 8000BC  Microscopic evidence of banana phytoliths from 5000BC  E Asia (China) o Millet varieties, rice, soybeans; chickens and pigs, later cattle, and much later  goats o Different domesticates in N and S China; North = arid/grains; South = humid and  rainy/rice o Developments:  Broad and diverse sites  Early pottery – thousands of years before domestication  Jomon: 13000­2500BC  China: about 20000ya  Utilitarian uses (cooking and storage)  China 16000­9000BC o Yuchanyan Cave o Xianrendong Cave  In a long, narrow river valley surrounded by high  mountains  Excavation in the 1960s = early Neolithic deposits  with pottery present  Work in the 1990s = found a lower, pre­ceramic  layer  Long period of occupation = we can compare layers and lifestyles  They were mobile foragers  Low­quality ceramics  Pre­domesticates  Wild rice remains found in the earliest phase  Domesticated rice appeared and increased in later  phases  Agriculture practiced by 5000BC o Domestication of rice in Central China  13000BP  Evidence at Yangtze River  A slow process  Pengtoushan cultural group  Tianloushan (6900­6600BP) – rice increases from 8% of diet to 24% o Domestication of millet in N China  Peiligang/Cishan culture – 10000BP  Yellow River  8000BP: domestication of chickens and pigs  Jiahu (7000­5500BC)  Evidence of agriculture, animal domestication, and writing  Hemudu (5500­3500BC)  Lived in wooden homes on stilts  Rice cultivation  Collected local berries and nuts  Domesticated buffalo, dogs, pigs  Wooden and bone tools used for agriculture  Yangshao culture (5000­3000BC)  Large villages  Domesticated millet, rice wheat; cattle, chickens, pigs  Banpo site (4500BC) – burials and writing o E Asia Summary  Pottery present far earlier than agriculture  Domestication in 2 places: N China (millet) and S China (rice) Domestication in Mesoamerica  Early Holocene  Environment: savannahs, seasonal tropical forests o Allowed less productive wild resources  Paleoindian (?­8000BC) o Hunted megafauna  Archaic (8000­2000BC) o Hunter­gatherers  Formative (2000BC­200AD)  Domesticates: o Plants: maize, beans, cotton, squash, tobacco, tomato, vanilla o Animals: turkey (debate over whether in Mexico or SW America), dogs, duck,  rabbit o Three Sisters: 3 most important crops  Squash by 8000BC  Earliest domesticate  Bottle gourd by 8000BC  Geographical origins: Central Balsas River Valley (6700BC)  Later, Guila Naquitz Cave (4250BC)  Maize by 6500BC  Wild ­ teosinte  Beans by 2500 BC  Complimentary cultivation/diet:  Maize stalks allow for beans to grow on them  Maize, beans, squash provide high calories, proteins, vitamins,  fats, and minerals  Guila Naquitz Cave (9000BC­1000BC) o Plants: Acorn, hackberry, maguey, pinon; maize by 4250BC o Animals: Deer, jackrabbit o Went from mobile foragers to settled villages by 2500BC  A long process  Tehuacan Valley o Settled villages o Small groups o Mobile foragers – wild foods (8000BC) o Began the process to domestication  Corn by 5000BC o Used palynology to get evidence – study of plant pollen  Mesoamerica Summary: o Domesticated plants, then animals, then pottery, then villages o Domesticated squash, then maize, then beans/turkey o Settlement increased population o Groundstone tools by 6500 BC o Storage features by 3000BC o Slow transitions and few domesticated animals  South America: o Andes Mountains (2  highest mountain range)  Vertical ecology o Domesticated animals = alpacas, guinea pigs, llamas o Summary:  Coastal villages (6000BC)  Early domesticates:  Potato (2000­1000BC)  Quinoa (3700­2500BC)  Camelids (7000BC)  Guinea Pigs (?)  Maize arrives (3000BC)  Ceramics in region (1800BC)


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