Sept. 11 - Sept. 18 Lecture Notes
Sept. 11 - Sept. 18 Lecture Notes CHE140
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Notetaker on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHE140 at Illinois State University taught by Dr. Chris Hamaker in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 240 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
CHE140 Weekly Notes 911 918 September 11 2015 Lecture Strong Electrolytes 0 Soluble ionic compounds 0 Strong Acids Solubility Rules 0 Always Soluble o Cations Group 1 Alkali metals and NH4 0 Anions N03quot and CH3OO39 acetate 0 Compounds containing the following anions are soluble except noted 0 Group 17 ions halides except the halides of Ag Cu Hg22 and Pb2 o 804239 except the sulfates of Ba2 Ca2 Hg22 and Sr2 o Insoluble compounds include the following o All hydroxides except those of group 1 cations and CaOH2 SrOH2 and BaOH2 o All sulfides except those of group 1 cations and NH4 CaS SrS and BaS o All carbonates except those of group 1 cations and NH4 o All phosphates except those of group 1 cations and NH4 strong electrolytes ionize 100 SO4S 9 doesn t dissolve K3PO4S 9 3Kaq PO43quot AcidB ase Reactions Involved H proton transfer AKA hydrogen ionproton transfer 0 Acids produce H hydrogen ions in solution 0 Bases produce OH39 hydroxide ions in solution 0 Nonmetal oxides react with water to produce acids Ca2g H200 9 H2CO3aq carbonic acid SO3g H201 9 H2304aq H H20 9 H3O H3 is the hydronium ion BronstedLowrv AcidBase o BL acids are H donors 0 BL bases are H acceptors aq 9 The BL AcidBase is always on the reactant sideleft side Strong Acids HCl HBr HI HNO3 HClO4 H2SO4 Ionize 100 Other acids are weak acids and ionize lt100 Strong Bases Soluble o Hydroxides o All other bases are weak bases September 14 2015 Lecture Types of Chemical Reactions Neutralization Reactions 0 Acid Base 9 Salt Water HNO3aq LiOHaq 9 H201 LiNO3aq molecular equation Haq 0H39aq 9 H201 total iOIIiC quati0n Haq OH39aq 9 H200 net ionic equation Li and N0339 are the SPECTATOR IONS do not change cancel each other out Net Ionic Equation is what is actually changing Precipitation Reaction 0 AKA Double displacement reaction 0 Mix two solutions and a solid precipitates out 1 What precipitate forms when solutions of silver nitrate and cesium iodide are mixed together AgNO3aq CSIaq 9 CSNO3aq AgIs Net Ionic Eq Agaq I39aq 9 AgIS I Cesium and Nitrate are the spectator ions 0 Silver Iodide AgI is the precipitate Precipitation Analysis 0 A neutralization reaction that precipitates 2 What is the concentration of bromide in a 250mL sample of water if excess silver ion results in 361mg AgBr precipitate Volume Solution 6 molarity 9 Moles Agaq Br39aq 9 AgBrs 361mg AgBr 1000mL 1g AgBr lmol AgBr lmol Br39 250mL 1L 1000mg AgBr 18777g AgBr Imol AgBr 000769M Br39 September 16 2015 Lecture Solubility o The maximum amount of a substance that can dissolve at a given temperature 0 Na2SO4 I Dissolves 47g100mL 0 C I Dissolves 427g100mL 100 C 0 K2SO4 I Dissolves 111g100mL 20 C I Dissolves 240g100mL 100 C 0 Most times substances dissolve more at higher temperatures Classification 0 Saturated contains exactly the maximum solubility in a solution 0 Unsaturated contains less than the maximum solubility in a solution 0 Super Saturated contains more than the maximum solubility in a solution 0 Happens When a solution is saturated at a higher temperature then cooled carefully containing the same solubility at the lower temperature 3 At 200C 318 g K2SO4 are dissolved in 260mL of water Is it saturated unsaturated or super saturated 111g 90111gmL 318g 901325gmL 100mL 260mL 01325gt0111 9 super saturated Titrations 0 Controlled acidbase neutralization reaction H OH39 9 H20 0 Add base to the endpoint When the OH39 added is equal to H in sample 4 A 25 OOmL sample of sulfuric acid is titrated With 01043M KOH requiring 1862mL to reach the end point What is the molarity of sulfuric acid H2SO4aq 2KOHaq 9 K2SO4aq 2H20 1862mL KOH 01043mol 1mol H2804 1 1000mL KOH lOOOmL KOH 2mol KOH 25 OOmL 1L 003884M H2804 Redox OxidationReduction Reaction Rules 1 2 The oxidation number for an element in its standard state is zero P GM Involves exchange of electrons Need to assign oxidation numbers to atoms The sum of the oxidation numbers is equal to the charge of the molecules or ion a Hg 9 ON 0 b N2 9 ON 0 a Fe3 9 ON 3 bS9QNQ Flourine is always 1 in compounds The oxidation number for monoatomic ions is equal to the ion charge Hydrogen is 1 unless With a metal oxygen is 2 unless With F or in a peroxide equal to its anion chage If none of the preVious apply the most electronegative element has an oxidation number CF4 F is always 1 in compounds therefore C is 4 in this case because 14 4 and to get zero C must be 4 September 18 2015 Lecture 1 What are the oxidation numbers of 102 1I2O 1I22 1I 4 I3 O2 What are the oxidation numbers of As03 3 As 30 3 As 32 3 As 6 As3 02 3 OxidationReduction Reactions Transfer of electrons 0 Electrons lost equal electrons gained 0 Reduction gaining electrons 0 Oxidation loss of electrons 0 Reducing Agent Reactant With oxidized element 0 Oxidizing Agent Reactant With reduced element CCl4 502 9 CO2 4C102 C 4 0 0 C 4 C1 4 Cl 1 O 2 O 2 41l 22l 4 C 4 1 Cl 4 Losing 5 electrons 0 O 2 Gaining 2 electrons 10 O2 electrons 20 electrons 4 Cl5 electrons 20 electrons Fe C12 9 FeCl2 0 0 Fe 2 Cl 1 Fe loses 2 electrons oxidized Cl gains 1 electron reduced Complex Redox Reaction 0 Uses the half reaction method CrO4239aq H2Saq 9 SO4239aq Cr2aq in acid solution 1 Break into half reactions CrO4239 9 Cr2 ms 9 SO42 Cr 6 Cr 2 H 1 S 6 0 2 S 2 O 2 2 Balance nonoxygen and nonhydrogen atoms 3 Balance oxygen With water CrO4 9 Cr 4H2O 4H2O ms 9 s04239 4 Balance hydrogen With H 8H CrO4 9 Cr 4H2O 4H2O ms 9 3042 10H 5 Balance charge With electrons 24e 8H CrO4 9 Cr 4H20 4H2O ms 9 so42 10H 8e 6 Combine the equations 6H 2CrO4239 H28 9 804239 2Cr2 4H2O
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