Popular in Life Cycle Developmemt
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Notetaker on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2310 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Lawrence Cohn in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Life Cycle Developmemt in Psychlogy at University of Texas at El Paso.
Reviews for Week 7
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/10/16
03-01-2016 Quiz Thursday, 03-03-16 Time Line: 1. Newborns prefer mother’s voice over voice of another female 2. Four day old prefer own language sounds over foreign language sounds 3. By one month of age infants can distinguish basic speech sounds p b ( maybe as early as 2-3 days of age) 4. At approximately 3 months of age cooing emerges 5. 6-10 months babbling emerges CV combinations st 6. 9-10 months of age—1 word comprehension 7. 12 months of age—1 word productions 8. 18 months of age—explosion of vocabulary acquisition 9. 18-24 months of age—infants begin to speak in 2 word sentences Babbling study: Universal Prevailing view that vocal babbling is the development of vocal tracts and neurological motor development A researcher observed the frequency of rattle shakes (right handed) increases at about 6 months of age o Maybe development in left hemisphere (houses language mechanisms) responsible for both events Study on babbling of deaf infants: 3 hearing babies and 2 deaf babies Our data does not show product of speech development, babbling is an example of a modal brain o Not tied to sound production o May be brain based st 12 months of age—1 word productions: may capture a whole sentence of thought 2 word combinations at 18-24 months exhibit learning syntax Words for Mom and Dad are similar across languages o Ex. Mama and papa 1 words are typically very concrete: milk, juice, cookie, so on Anomalies: 24 babies, 4.5 to 5.5 months old infant Present child’s name, name of similar stress foil, or name of different stress foil played on speaker Childs name 16.1 sec listen Same stress foil fewer seconds 3 sec fewer Different stress foil listen the least Respond to high frequency words more so than associate name with self Could do a study with name and another high frequency word with same stress foil and measure response time in same manner as above study 2 6 yrs. Productive vocabulary of roughly 2600 words on low side o High end 6 yrs. 12,500 words 18 months milestone: infants have realization sounds and meaning have a correlation, thus vocabulary explosion How does a baby infer the meaning of a word in relation to an object? General Ellen Markman: The riddle of induction Undefined rules the 20 month olds may follow in word acquisition Whole-object constraint: 1 time word is heard associated in terms of the item as a whole Taxonomic constraint: classification, when a word applies to a whole object the it belongs to class of similar object. Group of items that fall under “phone.” Mutual-exclusivity constraint: if new word it is distinctly different from any class previously obtained 1 issue how do children learn syntax and phonology so on nd 2 issue why do children make certain mistakes Referred to the cartoon of “I sawed the chair” mother corrects error “I saw the chair” or “I have seen” Errors of growth, Over generalizations/regularizations: -ed ending added to all words for past tense o Ex. “I hided the ball” Mechanisms of language acquisition: Language is innate? o Communication is universal 3 o Set of brain structures that allow humans to use language for communication 26 word sentence: to state every possible combination would take 3,000 years o Language use sets us apart from animals Noam Chomsky: world renowned like John Locke o Language Acquisition is innate All behavior is a product of reinforcement (BF Skinner) o Language is a product of reinforcement o If the child say the correct phrase then the reinforcement is receiving the correctly requested item. Herbert S. Terrace o Chimp: Nim Chimpsky o Teaches sign o In comparison to human children, who’s sentence lengths increase with age in hearing and deaf, Nim’s utterance length remains the same length one or two words o My study is not proving my hypothesis but Chomsky’s nd Ends with mother mouse barking joke (2 language) Piagetian Stages: Sensory-Motor: how to coordinate things like eye hand coordination (infancy) 18 month Pre-operational: children can think and reason about s-6 object that may not be present due to mental representations (early childhood) years 4 Concrete operations: late childhood Formal operations 18 months representational thought o Jacqueline placed flower down opens doors then picks up flower and exits Then to come back in Jacqueline places flower down realizes the door swing will catch the flower so she moves it outside of the swing then opens door to enter Cohn’s daughter example: Alicia asks if Josh (older brother) will always be older than her even when she is an adult 4 yrs. 8 wks.: Daddy will you marry me, sure but I’ll be married to mommy, no get divorced. Alicia hides candy under couch then informs Cohn where it is. 6.5 yrs.: sometimes I talk to my brain Referred to picture drawn by Alicia of her and Joshua and the comparison of brain size Cohn’s son Joshua asks why are some people tall? Height related to diet and parents. If you divorce and Mommy marries a tall man will I be tall. How are babies made? 2 men=no babies, woman and man=1 baby, 2 women=2 babies Joke: where did I come from? Explain birds and bees. Wants to know NYC vs VA for example. o The context requested by a child’s question may not be indicative of what an adult may interpret the request for 5 Conceptualization of concepts are concrete and abstract in different manners than adults 18-24 months: onset of language and symbolic play Time Line: Mental Representation 0-18 months early forms of mental representations (cross-modal transfer, facial imitation) 18 months- capacity for hypothetical representations/explosion in vocabulary acquisition 22-36 months- pretend play (using an eraser as a train, make-believe house under the blanket) allowing one object to represent another 28 months- increase in use of some mental state terms (I think, I feel, We probably) 30-36 months- capacity for dual representations 3-5 yrs.- growth in understanding of false beliefs and representation change; theories of mind How do children understand symbols 2, 3, 4 & 5 yrs.: watch as mini toy is placed in a location in a doll house, then informed a similar toy is in the same place Judy Deloache : trollies 03-03-2016 Took Quiz 3 Reviewed Quiz answers Next Exam Chapters 5-7: Thursday, 03-17-2016 6 Lecture: Symbolic growth o Pretend play o Language Mental State-vocabulary o Longitudinal study 30 mothers and children o Look at a list of words and identify which words their infants understood at: 10, 20, and 28 months of age o List of words expressed abstract ideas, can’t see it (mental states) Set to answer when does a child understand mental state? o Intentions, desires, beliefs Examples: I… know, think, happy, full, remember, maybe, want Not tangible Which mental states represented by these words are understood 7.8 words—20 month Demonstrates increase in olds understanding of mental states 37.2 words—28 month old o Very short period of time a dramatic increase present 7 o Just a peak into how children understand the terms even with the limitations Mental states deal with construct Theory of mind o I have a theory about what is in your head: Intentions Desires Emotions Etc. How does this develop in children? o Complex because not concrete o Adults: contribute to one another and self unobservable mental states: goals, thoughts, feelings Used to explain/predict behaviors Human capacity for reasoning about mental state allows one to infer causes of an action is “theory of mind” o Ex. Kid spills milk>>predicts mom will be mad and I will get punished Box of Smarties (candy) o Experimenter shakes box, kid Smarties!!! o Let’s open box, pencils inside, kid: “Holy Moly” o Experimenter places pencils back in box and places box out of sight Time for reflection: what did you think was in the box when I first pulled it out? o Response: pencils, even though there was a genuine shock expression 8 o WHY? Kids of a certain age continue to say pencils regardless how the question is asked. Representational change: the ability to say I know… but thought was… Age 3-5 developmental progression o Increase in representational change Previously though Smarties but know there are pencils. Possible confounds: didn’t want to be wrong, don’t understand, actually knew it was pencils—but does not explain every child that answers pencils Nikki o Hypothetically: Is outside and will be brought in o What do you think Nikki will say is in the box? o Age 3 still answer wrong o By age 4 begin to say Nikki will think there are Smarties Begin to differentiate what they know from what others know (false belief) Now trying a sponge that looks like a rock st o When you 1 saw this what did you think it was? o Age 3 thought it was a sponge even after showing surprise to find out it was a sponge Repeat the Nikki portion General findings: 9 o Ages 3-5 yrs. Increase in understanding of representational change False beliefs Appearance vs reality distinction Show kids a cartoon Sally and Ann o Sally puts ball in cupboard then Ann moves ball to new cupboard Where will Sally look for ball? We would say Sally will look in same cupboard because she didn’t see it moved Child will say new cupboard, older children will reason the same as us Children with autism have complications with this concept Children 3-4 yrs. Of age have great difficulty guiding their actions by rules held in mind that require acting contrary to their inclinations o Ex. Simon says Difficulty holding rule “Simon says” Adele Diamond Object permanence-impulse control Shows a big white piece of background with yellow sun o Black background with bright moon and stars Day/night test: Night time flashcard o 4 yr. old children o When guided with “Star light star bright…” Solve correctly most of time- follow impulse 10 Piaget’s 4 stages: Read exchanges between children and Piaget (Piaget studied as a biologist, PhD.) John Piaget- wrote an article on snails at ten (invited to direct a museum, due to assumed older) Developed age specific questions: universal wrong answers reflect the way children think Pre-operational Period o Four principles of thought: 1. Artificialism: Everything made by people for a specific person 2. Egocentrism: Only the perspective is my perspective 3. Animism: belief inanimate objects are alive 4. Realism: subjective vs objective Piagetian o 1. Counter suggestion What do you do to get wood? “made” wood—from “made seeds Natural world is not natural, it’s artificial- made by people o Two classic questions children ask: grass green/sky blue? Child doesn’t want to know the scientific reason What is the purpose? Car-driving Chair-sitting 11 Desk-writing o 2. Failing to distinguish your own perspective from the perspective of another person Children appear selfish Daughter Alicia is instructed to allow Vanessa to play with her doll, Alicia refuses because she cannot grasp that Vanessa would want to play with the doll more than her. Study: Children 3, 4, 5, and 6yrs. Old instructed to pick a gift from a box One for themselves and one for their parents Gifts: Silk tie, stockings, toy truck, doll, and adult book (history…) FINDINGS: 3 yr. old: usually selected toy truck of doll for parents 5 yr. old: 50% chose correct gift or the egocentric gift (child toy) 6 yr. old: 100% correct gift o 3. Animism: belief inanimate objects are alive o 4. Failure to distinguish subjective versus objective phenomenon Object and name are indivisible Name itself subjective Sun? what was sun called before its name was sun? o Child would say sun 12 Dreams are subjective: think of something during the night (with the soul) night shows us the dream (between the night and the head) 4 properties (above) characterize how young children explain thought o 5-6 yrs. This starts to diminish Study (conservation test) 3, 4, 5, or 6 yrs. Of age see two beakers same amount or different? o Same size beakers: answer correct Then pour the fluid into taller beaker with child watching, then ask same question o Different size beakers: answers wrong despite watching water transfer Taller beaker has more Failed to comprehend the change in appearance doesn’t necessarily mean a difference in content. 13
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'