biochem 01 worksheet
biochem 01 worksheet Biochemistry
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Popular in Biochemistry
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lavender94 on Friday March 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biochemistry at Republic Polytechnic taught by - in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Biochemistry in Biochemistry at Republic Polytechnic.
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Date Created: 03/11/16
A223 Biochemistry Problem 1: Element of Life WORKSHEET Question 1: The disassembly line Figure 1 a) Shown in Figure 1 are some of the foods we eat. During digestion, complex food molecules are broken down into their basic units. Watch the video below and fill in Table 1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IxNpXO8gGFM Complex Food molecule Basic Units Carbohydrates MONOSACCHARIDE Proteins AMINO ACID Fats (Lipids) GLYCEROL Table 1 b) Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids are the four main classes of organic compounds that are essential to the proper functioning of all living things. Find out more about these biomolecules at link Many biological molecules found in living things are polymeric in form. Look at the biological polymers given in Table 2 below, and fill up the following information for each structure. i) Identify the class of biomolecule the structure belongs to; ii) Circle the repeating monomer unit (draw a circle around it); iii) Name the monomer unit. Molecule Monomer e.g. A polypeptide chain (e.g. egg white albumin) AMINO ACID Biomolecule class: __PROTEIN__ e.g. Amylose (a component of starch) GLUCOSE Biomolecule class: __CARBOHYDRATE__ e.g. A triglyceride molecule (found in butter, margarine) FATTY ACID AND GLYCEROL e.g. Palmitic acid (a fatty acid molecule) Biomolecule class: __LIPID__ e.g. Part of a DNA molecule NUCLEOTIDE Biomolecule class: __NUCLEIC ACIDS___ Table 2 c) The macromolecules discussed above are large molecules also known as “Polymers” (Greek: „Poli‟ – many; „meros‟ - part) and are made by repeatedly joining up structural units called monomers (Greek: „mono‟ – one) using covalent bonds. Look at this link to see how biological polymers are made from monomers. Did you notice which molecule is commonly used to make and break polymers? What are the reactions called and why? Water molecule is commonly used to make and break polymers. The monomers are joined together by dehydration synthesis [forming bonds] where the water is taken away; whereas the polymers are broken down by hydrolysis [breaking bonds] where the water is added into the polymers. Question 2: The make-up of living matter The macromolecules found in living organisms are built primarily of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen but in different ratios. This gives each compound different properties. Shown below are diagrams of the elemental composition of various monomers that serve as building blocks of macromolecules. a) Study Figure 2 below and fill in the number of bonds each element can form with other atoms, in Table 3. Figure 2: Structures of monomeric building blocks of macromolecules Element Examples of molecules Number of bonds an atom of this element involving this element forms with other atoms [depends on valence electrons] Hydrogen H 2, CH 4 1 C CH4 4 N NH3 3 O CO2 2 Table 3 b) Which element can form the greatest variety of molecules? Carbon as more atoms can bond with carbon. c) Analyze the electron structure of the carbon atom in Figures 3 and 4 below. Figure 3 Figure 4 Learn more about chemical bonds with this animated tutorial (exploratory) link (click on “animation” and after each section, click on “options” to return to the main menu and view the other sections) Use the information you gain to explain the nature of the bonds that carbon forms with other atoms. A carbon has four valence electrons in the outermost shell. In order to fill the valency to form octet structure, carbon shares four electrons with the other elements, forming four covalent bonds. Question 4: Chaining carbon… Due to the number of bonds that it can form, carbon not only has the ability to bond many other atoms, but it also has the property of bonding with other carbon atoms to form chain- like structures. 4a. What is this property of carbon that allows it to form chain-like structures called? Refer to this link to find out. Carbon is able to form strong bonds with one another while still having one or more valences left over to link to other atoms and thus, the strength of the carbon – carbon bond allows long chains to be formed. 4b. What are the three basic kinds of structures that this property of carbon can form? Refer to this link for the information. Ring Structure, Linear Structure, Branch Chain 4c. Table 2 below shows some common organic structures. What type of structure(s) can you see being formed by the carbon atoms? Organic molecule Structure type Glucose Testosterone Ring Structure Alpha-linoleic acid (Omega 3 fatty acid) Ethanol Linear Chain Beta-carotene Branch Chain Table 2 4d. “Carbon forms the backbone of many organic molecules.” Explain why this sentence might be considered true. 4e. How do you think this property of carbon might lead to carbon‟s leading role in forming biological molecules? Want to know more about why carbon forms chain-like structures (exploratory)? link Question 6: In conclusion… What conclusions can you draw about why carbon is the atom that is the basic building block of life? GOING FURTHER Due to the similarities of carbon and silicon, some people have speculated about silicon- based life forms (exploratory) link Other than carbon, what other elements are important in living things? Why? (Exploratory) link ~End of worksheet~
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