Sept. 18 Lecture Notes
Sept. 18 Lecture Notes BSC197
Popular in Molecular and Cellular Basis of Life
Popular in Biological Sciences
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Notetaker on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC197 at Illinois State University taught by Wade Nichols in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Molecular and Cellular Basis of Life in Biological Sciences at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
BSC197 Lecture Notes September 18 2015 Lecture Vacuoles o Membrane bound spaces within a cell 0 May be small food storage 0 May be large like the central vacuole in plant cells Central Vacuole and Tonoplast 0 Storage for many chemicals 0 Ions proteins water 0 Often plays a role in tissue specific role 0 Pigment of owers toxins for defense 0 Can elongate to take up more or less space within a cell Mitochondria and Chloroplasts 0 Both are the power providers of a cell 0 Chloroplasts are like solar power plants 0 Mitochondria are like coalburning power plants 0 Both are membranebound organelles double membrane 0 Both move about within the cell and divide by binary fission to form more organelles Endosymbiant Theory 0 Chloroplasts and mitochondria have evolved directly from bacteria that were internalized into another prokaryotic cell 0 Mitochondria ancestor was effective at respiration and utilizing complex chemicals 0 Chloroplast ancestor was photosynthetic and able to derive energy from sunlight 0 Symbiosis means living together and can take multiple forms 0 Mutualism both parties benefit 0 Commensalism one party benefits with little to no effect on the other 0 Parasitism one party benefits at the expense of the other 0 Endosymbiant theory involved new mutualistic relationships Mitochondrial Structure 0 Mitochondria is responsible for respiration 0 Reactions are membraneassociated o Maximized membrane surface area Many proteins are bound to inner membrane Cristae are folds of the inner membrane Matrix is the uid surrounding the cristae o o o 0 At least one chromosome found in the matrix Mitochondria Structural Features Inner Membrane Outer Membrane Figure 1 Chloroplasts 0 Have double membrane With space in between 0 Have additional membrane structures called thylakoids Within Where chlorophyll is stored 0 Looks like poker chips 0 Stacks of thylakoids are called granum 0 Stroma surrounds thylakoids uid like the matrix 0 At least one chromosome in the stroma Inner membrane Thylakoid Outer membrane Stroma C oskeleton 0 Means cell skeleton 0 Internal framework of the cell 0 Has many functions 0 Anchoring cell organelles O O 0 Provide cell shape Aids in cell motility Response to environmental signals 0 Comprises O O O Microtubules Microtubules Microfilaments Intermediate filaments o Hollow tubes made of the protein tubulin O Alternating dimers two polymers of a and b tubulin 0 Largest cytoskeleton filaments o Is used for O 0 Maintenance of cell shape Motility I Flagella or cilia Movement of organelles through cell I Often involves motor molecule Often originate from centrosome