Week Two Notes
Week Two Notes ZOO364
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Mr. Nestor Miller
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by kylie1993 on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ZOO364 at North Dakota State University taught by Gary Clambey in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see General Ecology in Science at North Dakota State University.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
ZOO 364 General Ecology Week Two notes January 21 2015 Habitat Earth continued Lithosohere Earths super cial crust physica foundation for terrestrial life nutrient element and water reservoir dynamic erosion transport deposition plate techtonics Hvdrosohere oceans extent area and depth 70 percent of earth covered by oceans average depth 2 miles deep Biodiversity rich variety of organisms located here hydroogic cycling ocean currents heat sink source and conveyor oceans absorb solar radiation circulation carrying thermal energy inand waters lakes streamsrivers less than 3 percent extent waterless cycle biodiversity invertibrates amphibians sh etc signi cance for humans Crvosohere areas with long term snow and ice cover Greenland Antarctica frozen reservoir of water Frozen water in uences on earth energy budget incoming radiation is re ected CALLED ALBEDO EFFECT helps to absorb more water dynamic Biosphere worldwide to varying degrees Biomes patterns of biodiversity biogeography vertica dimensions above ground life montane and alpine areas The higher elevationssmal biological life aquatic systems extending to benthic zone and deepest ocean abyssal zone Anthr0005phere quotN005pherequot earth portions shaped to some degree by human activities increasing extent types and intensities of changes activities time of existence relative to total earth historygt 45 to 46 billion years earth 13 billion years universe 500000 years homosapiens The search for extraterrestrial life Exopanets and those within the quotgoldilocks zonequot not too hot not too cold just right Astronomic observations space exploration manned missions unmanned probes orbitors landers retrieval and return systems January 23 2015 The Biosphere Biomeregional terrestrial ecosystem landbased characterized by a distinctive set of climatic conditions prevalaent and plantsanimals and type ofsoH aquatic zonesdistinguished by chemical conditions depth and presence or absence of currents tropica rainforests12 of all terrestrial biodiversity high rain savannastropica seasonal forestswarm temperatures seasonal dry pe od hot desertsmore plant diversity hot low precipitation temperate grasslandsmoisture is high seasonality due to winter growing season where moisture is higher temperate shrublandwoodlandsvarious animals cool season brings moisture dry season meditteranean climate Deciduous forestsfairly cool temperature seasonal rainforeststemperature temperate evergreen forests borea forestsnot much biodiversity not dry extended cold seasons Main Channel Benthic Zone gt Hypotheic Zone Biogeographic patterns of species diversity Earth history and Wallace39s biogeographic regions Waace and Darwin theory of evolution produced by collecting organisms Can divide up the earth Wallace Lines that divide up different regions and how coevolution from regions worked Went along with trenches and plate tectonics Started with one super continent Pangea then moved apart because plate tectonics and land masses moved apart plates shifted so then organisms shifted as well Latitudinal pattern of species diversity multiple hypotheses optima climactic conditions high biological productivity ong time of relative stability area evoutionary diversi cation rate Exceptions to the general latitudinal pattern seabirds marine benthic organisms Physical environmental conditions climates cimate long term conditions including temperatures precipitation humidity wind stormstorm events significance of average variable extreme conditions and timing cimate can be considered at multiple scales spatial scales macrocimate mesocimate microcimate tempora scales seasonal annual mutiyear longterm cimate is driven by insolation solar energy interacting with the atmosphere In uences on the macroclimate of a region atitudina location ocation relative to land and water masses continental vs coastal climates eevation temperature and precipitation on windward and leeward sides of mountain ranges atmospheric circulation patterns surface materials and properties such as albedo and evapotranspiration degree of cloud cover oceanic circulation patterns Climatic variations and causes seasonal variations multiyear variations EX paci c decadel ascillations el nino southern oscillation north atlantic oscillations ong term climatic changes EX atmospheric composition geological processes associated with plate tectonics earth orbital variations Kinetic energy Radiant Energy Temperature Fire 1 Substrateearth 7 materials I terrestrial organisms water L for aquatic materials H20 gases essential elements organisms Pressure at39fnospheric press re l graVIty Temperature homeostasis warmblooded cold blooded endotherms humans ectotherms homeotherms heterotherms animals that regulate temperature in different parts of seasonshibernating Water drawbacks of living in water water is denser than air harder to move through water too cant swim or move as quickly as animals on land different oxygen content than on land not distributed equally temperature uctuations light not always available Land terrestrial mammals must ght off gravity unlike mammals in the water easier for animals to move through air than water greater availability of light here than underwater changes of temperature are a bigger problem here than underwater Par VS IR part of soectrum the amount of energy from each photon is related to wavelengths and the spectrum These trigger photosynthesis or electronic citation moving into the UV system photons tend to disrupt rods and cones and the UV radiation tends to be disruptive lnfrared radiation can warm photos and cause no real damage yet they both revolve around the energy produced WaterEnerdv Budgets where does it Fish get water and how does it lose water They lose H20 with peeing exhalation etc they live in burrows and are typically active at night They have really good excratory functions and they have efficient kidney systems that don39t excrete too much urine Probably get food that is water rich or seeds take in H20 through cellular respiration metabolic Radiation solar radiation insolation infrared radiation conduction can lose or gain convection respireperspire evaporation radiate energy away from us
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