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Week Three Notes

by: kylie1993

Week Three Notes ZOO364

GPA 3.0
General Ecology
Gary Clambey

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About this Document

Week three of notes: Includes information on types of natural selection, mechanisms.
General Ecology
Gary Clambey
Class Notes
natural selection, charles darwin, mechanisms of selection
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by kylie1993 on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ZOO364 at North Dakota State University taught by Gary Clambey in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see General Ecology in Science at North Dakota State University.


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Date Created: 09/18/15
ZOO 364 General Ecology Week Three Notes February 2 2015 Organisms and relationship to enerov and temperature reoions Reasons for the significance of temperature includino temperature extremes EX molecular structuresprotein DNA structure damaged high temperatures and low temperatures freezing can affect freezing water in cell walls of plant cells 0 Molecular aSpect of temperature relations therma stabilityinstability of cell constituents cell membrane composition and function made up of phospholipid bilayer has to be kept at correct level so that uid is not affected At lower temperatures the uid can become too solid heat shock proteins as molecular chaperones protectants against low temperatures supercooling where can turn to ice and recover from it frogs can turn 65 percent of body mass into ice and not die but still recover These form in body cavities and between cells not in cells Possible components of enerov budoet physical energy transfersradiation in uxes EX insolation infrared radiation from nearby objects by organism lose or gain energy this way re ecting off a surface heat transfer by atom to atom molecule to molecule collision heat transfer that involves a uid liquid or gas that transfers by movement circulating Latent heat transferevaporation transpiration metaboic processescellular respiration End productsC02 H20 ATP and heat subsequent heat generation as ATPfueled body processes occur various body temperature conditions ectothermsthermoregulators constant outside temperature makes constant body temperature variable body temperature regulated body temperatures birds mammals bene ts of endothermyhigh metabolic rate sustain high paces costs and accompanying necessary attributes of endothermy respiratory systems and nervous systems pant sur cial materials in uencing light absorption re ection and transpiration animas body coverings that can have insulative coverings fur and have adjustments with shedding and year timeseasons circuation patternsvasoconstriction and vasodilation countercurrent heat exchanges EX heat moves away from ngers and toes and to heart in cold temperatures behaviora adaptationsEX refuging behavior PlantsPhotosvnthesis combination of so called light reactions and carbon xation reactions categorization of plants by photosynthetic pathway C3 plants kelvin cycle aren39t as well adapted initially forms 3 carbon compounds photrespiration C4 plants still have C3 pathway but have an extra step for capturing light CAM plants has an extra carboxyl group enzyme to capture C02 rst formed as a 4 Carbon compound Organisms in relation to water major component of all life forms management of water and solute budgets osmoregulation in aquatic environments freshwater organismsHYPEROSMOTIC takes in water through osmosis marine organismslSOOSMOTlClosing too much water remain same level as sea levelsolute HYPOOSMOTlCtake in salt water to expel excessions management of H20 budgets in terrestrial environments plantsroot systems xylem vacuoles water proofed surfaces gas exchange to emit air phosynthesis as water expensive process animasnecessity of disposing nitrogenous wastes either as ammonia urea or uric acid water sourcesingested liquids and foods metabolic water possible avenues to where water is lost evaporation from body surface respiratory structures excretion and egestion February 6 2015 Evolutionarv Ecoloov Biological evolution 0 Life history characteristics Behavioral ecology Population Ecology Characteristics of biological populations 0 Population dynamics Biological Evolution multigenerational change in one or more populations 0 an individual organism does not evolve certain things we can adjust EX skin tone change due to sunlight is possible of an individual descent with modi cation in a biological lineage Darwin EX historic fossil shes with pelvic bone variations and starts to disappear throughout the years For evolution to occur genetic variation within a pooulation is essential mutationschange in allelesvery low 1 in 10000 chance genetic recombination with sexual reproduction horizonta lateral transfer among some prokaryotes EX some bacteria more DNA between species by conjugation or chunks of DNA from surrounding environment Mechanisms of Evolution 0 Natural Selection adaptive evolutionresulting from differential survival and reproductive successhigher tness due to selective factors abiotic or biotic acting on genetic variants in a population Directiona Selectionone way or another Stabilizing Selectionextremes are lower tness favors intermediate Disruptive Selectionfavors extremes over intermediate 0 Sexual Selectiongender differences resulting in genetic tness 1 combat contests between members of same species Whichever wins claims the mates EX big horned sheep 2 females watch the danceritual and select mate They respond to male cues color size speed etc 0 Genetic Driftrandom allele changes in small populations group splits off and forms new population in new habitat large population goes under becomes smaller population then becomes repopulated Results in new population that could have alleles lost less diverse EX cheetahs decrease population from human hunting and then repopulate Gene Flowalleles moving from one population to another eaving population coming into a population


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