Lecture and chapter catch-up
Lecture and chapter catch-up BUSORG-1020
Popular in Organizational Behavior
Mr. Nestor Miller
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddie Jazwinski on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BUSORG-1020 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Raymond Jones in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
Organizational Behavior 090915 Opening question to consider An individual s personality traits are always present andor consistent But how does personality interact with context Personality enduring characteristics that describe an individual s behavior 9personaity is dependent on both heredity and environment 0 Heredity factors determined at conception one s biological physiological and inherent psychological makeup o MBTI quotMyersBriggs Type Indicator personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types I Participants are classified as extroverted or introverted thinking or feeling and perceiving or judging I Using this test in managing employees can minimize personalityjob conflicts Individual Traits o Traits explain how individuals attitudes and behavior affect organizations 0 Face Validity 0 Individuals traits tend to remain stable over time 0 People are inconsistent while many organizational tasks require dependability in terms of outcome 0 Organizational settings and processes affect behavior 0 Individuals are highly adaptive and traits change accordingly The Big 5 Personality Model personality assessment model that taps 5 basic dimensions PWP Extraversion dimension describing someone who is sociable gregarious and assertive Agreeableness dimension that describes someone who is good natured cooperative and trusting Conscientiousness dimension that describes someone who is responsible dependable persistent and organized Emotional Stability dimension that characterized someone as calm selfconfident secure positive versus nervous depressed and insecure negative Openness to Experience dimension that characterized someone in terms of imagination sensitivity and curiosity Other Relevant Personality Traits Core SelfEvaluation bottomline conclusions individuals have about their capabilities competence and worth as a person 9 people positive on this trait see more challenge in theirjob and actually attain more complexjobs Machiavellianism the degree to which an individual is pragmatic maintains emotional distance and believes that ends can justify means 9High Machs individuals who often seek to manipulate are driven to win are persuaded less and attempt to persuade others 9Low Machs individuals who avoid being manipulative focus less on winning are more easily persuaded and rarely attempt to persuade others Narcissism tendency to be arrogant have a grandiose sense of selfimportance require excessive admiration and have a sense of entitlement Organizational Behavior 090915 9narcissism is undesirable although narcissists are more likely to emerge as leaders 9although they are often better leaders than their colleagues their supervisors often label them as worse Selfmonitoring personality trait that measures an individual s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external situational factors 9those who display this show considerable adaptability 9highly sensitive to external cues and can behave differently in different situations RiskTaking willingness to take chances 9different levels of risktaking propensity may be appropriate for different types of positions Proactive Personality people who identify opportunities show initiative take action and persevere until meaningful change occurs 9more likely to challenge the status quo or voice displeasure 9good candidates for entrepreneurs PU LSE CH ECK located in the Personalityamp Context notes posted on courseweb Briefly describe the quotDark Triad of personality traits and why excessive levels of each can be harmful Terminal vs Instrumental Values Values basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or endstate of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or endstate of existence 9Value System hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual s values in terms of their intensity 0 Terminal values desirable endstates of existence the goals a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime 0 Instrumental values preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one s terminal values PersonalityJob Fit Theory PersonalityJob fit theory theory that identifies six personality types and proposes that the fit between personality type and occupational environment determines satisfaction and turnover 9satisfaction is highest and turnover lowest when personality and occupation are in agreement 0 Realistic o Investigative 0 Social 0 Conventional o Enterprising o Artistic Organizational Behavior 090915 Lecture Takeaway 0 v quotwhile we can see how individual personality attributes like quotthe Dark Triad and the MBTI have a great deal of validity context is also a powerful determinant on individual behavior International Values PULSE CHECK located on pages 150 152 Identify and define Hofstede s five value dimensions of national culture Organizational Behavior 091415 Opening question to consider Does perception just reinforce bounded rationality or does it provide a map for whyhow decisions are made Perception a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment 9people s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is not on reality itself this is why perception is important to the study of CB 9world is as you perceive it 9perception is reality 9it s all about perception imagine management Consider quotprofessional attire resume paper Factors that influence perception 0 Factors of the perceiver o Attitudes o Motives o Interests 0 Expe ence o Expectations 0 Factors in the situation 0 Time 0 Work setting 0 Social setting 0 Factorsin the target Novehy Motion Sounds Size Background Proximity Similarity 0 Everyone is constantly perceiving relative to everyone else Attribution theory an attempt to determine whether an individual s behavior is internally or externally caused 9internally caused behaviors are those we believe to be under the personal control of the individual 9externally caused behavior is what we imagine the situation forced the individual to do 0 Distinctiveness refers to whether an individual displays different behaviors in different situations o If everyone who faces a similar situation responds in the same way we can say the behavior shows consensus Consistency in actions is searched for by an observer Fundamental Attribution error Perception is subject to the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when used to judge others behavior Class examples Organizational Behavior 091415 0 A very very poor softball player 0 Perception SHE SUCKS 0 Reality she s never played before 0 Watching a professional basketball player and thinking they re terrible vs actually playing them they re MUCH better than you Selfserving Bias perception is subject to the tendency to attribute one s own success to internal factors while placing the blame of failure on external factors quotShortcutsquot for Evaluations Selective Perception interpreting what ones sees on the basis of one s own interests backgrounds experience etc 9 commonrelative situation vs seeing what we want to see Class example 0 quotFrankenstormquot where nothing happened vs hurricane Sandy Halo Effect draw a general impression about an individual as a person by focusing on a single characteristic of that person 9identify the key important trait vs quotblindersquot 9may be heavily influenced by a single experience with a person that was overly positivenegative Class example 0 Avoidance of a particular professor to avoid replicating a certain negative experience Contrast Effects evaluation of a person s characteristics that is affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics 9reaction to a person is influences by other persons we have recently encountered Textbook example 0 quotNever follow an act that has kids or animals in it everyone loves kids and animals you re going to be boring in comparison Stereotyping judging someone on the basis of one s perception of the group to which that person belongs Textbook example 0 Racial stereotypes PULSE CHECK located on page 173 List and describe 3 specific applications of shortcuts in organizations Organizational Behavior 091415 DecisionMaking in Organizations Rational Decisionmaking model decisionmaking model that describes how individuals should behave in order to maximize some outcome Define the problem Identify the decision criteria Allocate weights to the criteria Develop the alternatives Evaluate the alternatives Select the best alternative 0 Bounded Rationality process of making decisions by constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity 0 People often satisfice they seek solutions that are satisfactory and sufficient o Intuitive Decisionmaking an unconscious process created out of distilled experience 0 Relies on holistic associations links between disparate pieces of information 0 Fast and affectivey charged it usually engages the emotions P P PP P Organizational Behavior 091615 Judgmental Shortcuts to decisionmaking Availability Heuristic tendency to base a decision on the most readily available information 9Use most relevant information vs use emotionallyvividrecent information Representative Heuristic assessing the likelihood of an occurrence by drawing analogies and seeing identical situations where they do not exist 9relative to successful models vs overestimate probability of success Anchoring Bias tendency to fixate on initial information which makes one unwilling to adjust to subsequent information particularly if new information challenges one s desired aims stand firm on one s key beliefs or views vs a stubborn or shortsighted approach Intuitive DecisionMaking an unconscious process created out of distilled experience 9 going with one s gut in a tough situation vs quotflying by the seat of your pants when you need to be reasonable Overconfidence Bias overuse of optimism and resolve 9individuals whose intellectual and interpersonal abilities are weakest are most likely to overestimate their performance and ability Confirmation Bias tendency to seek out information that reaffirms past choices and to discount information that contradicts pastjudgements 9people tend to selectively gather information rather than objectively gathering it the correct way 9we seek out information that reaffirms our past choices and we discount information that contradicts them Escalation of Commitment an increased commitment to a previous decision in spite of negative information staying with a decision even when there is clear evidence it is wrong 90ften used to avoid admitting that the original choice was a mistake Randomness Error tendency of individuals to believe that they can predict the outcome of random events 9turning imaginary patterns into superstitions Risk Aversion tendency to prefer a sure gain of a moderate amount over a riskier outcome even if the riskier outcome might have a higher expected payoff 9implications aren t entirely negative Hindsight Bias tendency to believe falsely after an outcome of an event is actually known that one would have accurately predicted that outcome 9when we have accurate feedback on an outcome we seem pretty good at concluding it was obvious quotProsquot of Relying on Shortcuts 0 Provides a means of making a decision with quotwhat s available in regard to information 0 Under time pressure andor a vast amount of information shortcuts are often the best available means of making decisions a necessary evil 0 Shortcuts provide an quoteasy way out in decisions that may actually work 0 In particular contexts emotionalpersonal a short time frame shortcuts often serve as a tool that a person can use to focus on their most salient concerns quotConsquot of Relying on Shortcuts 0 Not necessarily related to the likelihood that a decision will be successful 0 The success of shortcuts can often be attributed to coincidence and offer little room for improving decisionmaking Organizational Behavior 091615 0 Shortcuts quotshortcircuit the entire decisionmaking process by focusing the individual s attention to one attribute or interpretation 0 Concepts behind shortcuts availability amp representativeness do not directly address whether they are appropriate or inappropriate in particular context emotional vs professionalwork Lecture Ta keaway Due to bounded rationality shortcuts provide a means of reducing information constraints and reducing uncertainty when making decisions At the same time perceptual shortcuts are highly susceptible to the shortcomings of perception PULSE CHECK located on pages 184 186 1 Identify and describe the 4 major individualbased differences in decision making 2 Identify and describe the 5 major constraints organizations face in decision making Three Ethical Decision criteria 1 Utilitarianism system in which decisions are made to provide the greatest good for the greatest number 9decisions made solely on the basis of their outcomes 9dominates decision making in business 2 Whistleblowers individuals who report unethical practices by their employer to outsiders 9Utilizes right to free speech 3 Imposing and enforcing rules fairly and impartially 9ensures justice or equitable distribution of benefits AND costs 9typically favored by unions Improving Creativity in Decision Making Creativity ability to produce novel and useful ideas 0 To unleash creative potential one must escape the psychological ruts that are often fallen into and learn to think about the problem in divergent ways Threecomponent model of creativity proposition that individual creativity requires expertise creative thinking skills and intrinsic task motivation
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