Week 2 Book and Class Notes
Week 2 Book and Class Notes MKT 319
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Lynch on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MKT 319 at Michigan State University taught by R. Spreng in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Marketing Research in Marketing at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
Ch 2 Defining the Marketing Research Problem and Developing an Approach Problem definition Stating the general problem and identifying the specific components of the marketing research problem The Process of Defining the Problem and Developing an Approach Problemdefinition process Defining the managementdecision problem and the marketing research problem Tasks Involved in Problem Definition Understand limitations and capabilities Problem audit A comprehensive examination of a marketing problem to understand its origin and nature History of the problem alternatives available to dm criteria for alternatives nature of potential actions based on research information needed to answer the dm s questions how will each item of information be used by the dm corporate decisionmaking culture Focus on underlying causes Internet for communication 9 Experience surveykeyinformant technique Interviews with people knowledgeable about the general topic being investigated Leaduser survey Surveys that involve obtaining information from the lead users of the technology Experts useful in industrial rather than consumerresearch Experts useful when little info is available from other sources as in the case of new products Newsgroups online a Secondary data Data collected for some purpose other than the problem at hand precedes primary data collection b Primary data Data originated by the researcher to address the research problem a Qualitative research Unstructured exploratory research methodology based on small samples intended to provide insight and understanding of the problem setting i Focus groups in depth interviews Pilot surveys Surveys that tend to be less structured than largescale surveys in that they generally contain more openended questions and the sample size is much smaller c Case studies Involve an intensive examination of a few selected cases of phenomenon of interest Cases could be customers store or other units Environmental Context of the Problem a Firm vs industry trends a Objectives Goals of the organization and of the decision maker that must be considered in order to conduct successful marketing research a Buyer behavior A body of knowledge that tries to understand and predict consumer s reactions based on an individual s specific characteristics a Legal environment Regulatory policies and norms within which organizations must operate a Economic environment Purchasing power gross income disposable income discretionary income prices savings credit availability and general economic conditions Mana ementDecision Problem and Marketing Research Problem Problem confronting the decision maker Is asks what the decision maker needs to do Asks what information is needed and how it can best be obtained Conceptual Map A way to link the broad statement of the marketing research problem with the managementdecision problem Management wants to take an action therefore we should study topic so that we can explain question Defining the Marketing Research Problem Allow the researcher to obtain all the info needed to address the management Guide the researcher in proceeding with the project Define the project broadly enough so as not to overlook any relevant aspects Broad statement of the problem The initial statement of the marketing research problem that provides appropriate perspective on the problem Specific components of the problem Focuses on key aspects of the problem and provides clear guidelines on how to proceed Components of the Approach 1 Analytical Framework and Models a Objective evidence Unbiased evidence that is supported by empirical findings b Theory Guides the collection of data based on axioms which are assumed to be true c Analytical model Consists of a set of variables related in a specified manner to represent all or part of some real system or process d Verbal models Variables and their relationships are stated in prose form e Graphical models Visual and pictorially represent the theory preliminary steps to develop mathematical models f Mathematical models Specify and strength and direction of relationships among variables 2 Research Questions and Hypothesis a Research questions are refined statements of the specific component of the problem b Hypothesis An unproven statement or proposition about a factor or phenomenon that is of interest to the researcher statements about proposed relationships 3 Specification of Information Needed International Marketing Research Be aware of underlying factors that affect consumer preference Marketing Research and Social Media 1 Problem Definition Blogs and Facebook 2 Approach to the Problem Incorporates consumer feedback reach to segments Ethics in Marketing Research Issues arise when the objectives of the decision maker are against the objectives of the client firm Class Ch 2 Defining Marketing Research Problem and Developing an Approach Problem definition is the most important part of research Conducting a Problem Audit 0 Alternatives think broadly 0 Criteria for Evaluating Alternatives important Underlying causes 0 Think in terms of the 4 P s Environmental Context o PROBLEM acronym Marketing Research Problem 0 Think in terms of the 4 P s Graphical Models are the most common of all models 0 Hierarchy of Effects Model This 9 this 9 that Mathematical Models 0 Regression Model Research questions used a lot hypotheses not used a lot Ethics Casro Code of Standards 0 Responsibilities to Respondents o Responsibilities to Clients I Confidence mutual respect honesty I Clients need to know there are other clients getting info F I Bribery unethical modest gifts ok 0 Responsibilities of Reporting to Clients and the Public I At a minimum must have Sponsor of study Exact wording of the question Others 0 Biased and personal interest unethical Ch 3 Research Design What Is a Research Design Research Design A roadmap for conducting the marketing research project that specifies the procedures necessary to obtain the information needed to structure and or solve the marketing research problem Basic Research Desiins To provide insights and understanding Flexible and unstructured Sample small and nonrepresentative Data is qualitative Followed by further research Uses Formulate a problem or define it more precisely Identify alternative courses of action Develop hypotheses Isolate key variables and relationships for further examination Gain insights for developing an approach to the problem Establish priorities for further research OOOOOO Conclusive research Assist the decision maker in determining evaluating and selecting the best course of action for a given situation Test hypotheses and examine relationships Formal and structured Data is quantitative Used as input into decision making Descri tive Research To develop a profile of a target market To estimate the frequency of product use as a basis for sales forecasts To determine the relationship between product use and perception of product To determine the degree to which marketing variables are associated Based on a clear statement of the problem specific hypotheses and specification of the information needed 1 Sales studies a Market potential b Market share c Sales analysis 2 Consumer perception and behavior studies a Image b Product usage c Advertising d Pricing 3 Market Characteristic Studies a Distribution b Competitive analysis Interviews with a large number of respondents using a predesigned questionnaire 1 CrossSectional Designs Sample survey onetime collection of information from any given sample of population elements a Representative no response bias 2 Longitudinal Designs Provides a series of pictures which track the changes that take place over time a Panel Consists of respondents generally households that have agreed to provide information at specified intervals over an extended period i Common among syndicated firms b Detects change large amount of data collection accurate Causal Research Causal research Obtain evidence regarding cause and effect relationships Causal research requires a planned and structured design Causal design Causal independent variables are manipulated in a relatively controlled environment To understand which variables are the causes and which are the effects To determine the extent of the relationship between the predicted effect and the causal variables Relationships Among Exploratory Descriptive and Causal Research Exploratory is used when little is known about the problem situation Descriptive or causal is used when the problem situation is known Exploratory can be used at any point in the study Tasks Involved in Formulating a Research Design 1 Define the information needed Design the exploratory descriptive and or causal phases Specify the measurement and scaling procedures Construct a questionnaire Specify the sampling process and the sample size Develop a plan of data analysis 99199 Research Design and the Value of Marketing Research Research design helps Random sampling error Error due to the sample selected being an imperfect representation of the population of interest Nonsampling error Errors that can be attributed to sources other than sampling they can be random or nonrandom Budgeting and Scheduling the Project Management tools needed to help ensure that the marketing research project is completed within the available resources Ensure information is obtained in time to address the managementdecision problem Marketing Research Proposal Contains the essence of the project and serves as a contract between the researcher and management 9 PONP SJ39erSNNtquot Executive summary Background Problem definition research objectives Approach to the problem Research design Fieldwork data collection Data analysis Reporting 12 single spaced pages Cost and time 10 Project personnel 11 Appendices statistics International Marketing Research Developing countries consumer panels are often not available which makes it difficult to conduct descriptive longitudinal research If marketing support infrastructure is lacking it s difficult to implement a causal design involving a field experiment Marketing Research and Social Media Networking communities can be used to recruit marketing research panels and are distinguished by voluntary and reputations are earned by winning the trust of other members Class Ch 3 Research Design Formulation We need to think about the right questions in order to do data analysis correctly Exploratory May change over time depending on our findings small non representative sample qualitative Descriptive Marked by prior formulation of specific hypothesis uses 0 Cross Sectional measures data at one point in time I Cohort analysis Generational marketing Age Effect As a person ages consumption changes Cohort Effect Differences in generations 0 Longitudinal Ask some people multiple times with a time lag Causal Uses Qualitative may be used after quantitative
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