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Date Created: 09/03/14
Psychology One 9314 938 AM FAIR GAME SHEET MIDTERM 0 Intro Lecture Types of Psychology From experimental hard to applied soft OOOOO Physiological Psychology study of logic and brain Psychophysics Sensation and perception Quantitative Math Psychology Animal Experimental Psychology Cognitive Psychology studies the process of thought and knowledge Focus on how people make decisions solve problems and convert thought into language Ex since a cockroach was dipped in apple juice even if the cockroach is sterilized most people will not drink it Developmental Psychology study how behavior changes with age from womb to tomb ex when little avoid bittersour tastes which changes with age Personality Psychology analyzing of personality Social Psychology study of how an individual influences other people and how the group influences the individual Ex eat twice as much when in a large group as a means of social relationship strengthening Evolutionary Psychology tries to explain the behaviors in terms of the evolutionary history of the species including why evolution might have a favored tendency to act in particular ways Ex most people and animals tend to enjoy sweets and avoid bitersour foods because our ancestors were accustomed to the fact that bitter meant poisonous and sweet meant nutritious Industrial Psychology Consumer Psychology Neuropsychology o Clinical Psychology help people with psychological problems and tries to help them overcome these problems such as depression anxiety substance abuse marriage problems ect Advanced degree in psychology with a specialty in understanding and helping people with psychological problems 0 Counseling Psychology help people with educational vocational marriage healthy related decisions PhD PsyD or EdD with supervised experience in counseHng Deals mostly with life decisions and family or career readjustments 0 Educational and School Psychology Brainin the vat problem 0 Unsure if people could function properly without their brains inside of their body 0 Took brain out of women39s head o Is me the body or the brain History and Research Methods Mind body or Mind brain problem 0 Philosophical question of how experience relates to the brain 0 Dualism vs Monism Dualism mind is separate from the brain but somehow controls the brain and therefore the rest of the body 2 Goes against law of conservation of matter and energy 2 Physical and mental are different aspects of reality 2 Interactionism no interaction of body with soul at moment of conception everything is predestined 2 Psychophysical parallelism Monism view that conscious experience is inseparable from the physical brain mental activity is brain activity 2 Physical and mental are one Idealism all is thought Materialism all is physical Free will vs determinism O 0 Free will the belief that behavior is caused by a person39s independent decisions Determinism the idea that every event has a cause or determinant that one could observe or measure Nature vs Nurture 0 How do differences in behavior relate to differences in hereditary and environment Nature people are the way they are because of their hereditary differences Nurture people are the way they are from how they are brought up and how their environmental aspects effect them Deductive vs Inductive methods 0 Deductive top down approach start with theory and end with observations trying to prove the theory theory 9 hypothesis 9 observation 9 confirmation Inductive usually called scientific method start with observation and end in theory observation 9 pattern9 tentative hypothesis 9 theory Qualities of Scientific Method 0 Burden of Proof the obligation to present evidence to support one s claim Karl popper the point of research is to falsify the incorrect theories and a good theory will withstand all Falsifiability of hypothesis state in such clear precise terms that we can see what evidence would count against it Replicability of findings those that anyone can obtain at least approximately by following the same procedures Parsimonious explanation when given a choice among explanations that seem to fit the facts we prefer the one whose assumptions are fewer simpler or more consistent with well established theories Devaluation of anecdotal evidence people39s reports of isolated events dreamshunches that come true Prophet Nostradamus believed he could predict events of later centuries and wrote book was very wrong Amazing Kreskin said had ability to read minds David Marks and Richard Kammann disproved Kreskin by using same kinds of deception that are used in commonly employed magic arts Experiments cannot prove these things therefore we must assume they are false Obstacles to experimental objectivity o Experimenter bias the tendency of an experimenter unintentionally to misperceive results To avoid use blind observer an observer who records data without knowing the researcher s predictions Also must conceal procedure from participants Single blind study either the observer or the participants are unaware of which participants received which treatment Double blind study both the observer and participants are unaware of which participants received which treatment 0 Demand characteristics Problem with psychological studies is that the person always knows that they are part of a study ex man and pinkstrength study Demand characteristics cues that tell participants what is expected of them and what the experimenter hopes to find In order to conceal these experimenters often do not tell the subjects or use double blind studies Ways to maximize experimental objectivity o blinds on observers and participants 0 placebos Naturalistic Observations a careful examination of what happens under more or less natural conditions ex Jane Goodall observed chimps in the wild and recorded their behavior Case histories a thorough description of a person including abilities and disabilities medical condition life history unusual experiences and whatever else seems relevant 0 DIFFERENT from naturalistic observations because focuses on single individual Correlational studies a procedure in which investigators measure the relation between two variables without controlling either variable 0 Correlation the measure of the relationship between two variables Variable is anything that differs from one individual to another 0 Correlation Coefficient a mathematical estimate of a relationship between to variables 0 no relationship 1 as one variable increases so does the other 1 as one variable increases the other decreases ex golf as one practices more his score goes down Scatterplots graphs that show correlation o Illusionary Correlation an apparent relationship based on casual observations of unrelated or weakly related events Ex candy does NOT make children more active but many parents believe it does 0 Correlation versus causation Correlation indicates how strongly two things are related but does NOT tell us why 2 Helps us make predictions Causation reason for two things being related Experiment a study in which the investigator manipulates at least one variable while measuring at least one other variable Experimental and control conditions 0 Experimental group receives the treatment that an experiment is designed to test 0 Control group a set of individuals treated in the same way as the experimental group except for the procedure that the experiment is designed to test Dependent independent variables 0 Independent variables item that an experimenter changes or controls cause 0 Dependent variables the item that an experimenter measures to determine the outcome effect Purpose of descriptive versus inferential statistics 0 Descriptive Statistics mathematical summaries of results ex correlation coefficient Mean median and mode 2 Mean average Used there39s a normal distribution a symmetrical frequency of scores clustered around the mean ex time takes a student to complete task usually have times that follow a pattern of normal distribution Means can be extremely misleading 2 Median the middle number when scores are arranged from highest to lowest Used when population distribution is far from symmetrical 2 Mode the score that occurs most frequently Not usually used but can also be used to calculate central score Used with bimodal distribution even number of subjects but no middle school Measures of Variation how to describe graphs 2 Range a statement of the highest and lowest scores 2 Standard Deviation a measurement of the amount of variation among scores in a normal distribution Enables us to compare scores on different tests 0 Inferential Statistics statements about a large population based on an inference from a small sample Neuroscience Calculates the probability that that purely chance variation would achieve a difference as large as one observed Statistically reliable unlikely to have arisen by chance if p value is less than 05 Depends on size of the difference between the groups the number of research participants in each group and amount of variation among individuals in each group 95 confidence interval range within which the true population mean lies with 95 o certainty Cerebrovascular accident CVA s or strokes o Thromboticembolic stroke Thrombotic Caused by a blood clot developing in an artery that supplies blood to the brain usually because of repeated build up of fatty deposits calcium cholesterol or fibrinogen carried in the blood body perceives as a injury to vessel and more and more blood clots are formed eventually stopping blood flow Embolic Blood clot formed in a different part of body that travels through the blood stream eventually making its way toward brain 0 Ruptured aneurysms protruding bubble or sac on a blood vessel caused by a weak spot in the blood vessel that balloons out bursting of bubble kills many brain cells 0 Hemorrhagic stroke leak in the blood vessel floods area ElectroencephalographyEEG 0 Uses electrodes on the scalp to record rapid changes in brain39s electrical activity 0 Magnetoencephalograph records magnetic changes similar to EEG 0 Provides little precision about location of the activity but record on millisecond by millisecond basis on brain39s reactions to lights sounds and other events Hindbrain with functions back bottom of brain o Cerebellum cauifower ike structure on back of hind brain looks like mini brain 0 Pons front of hindbrain above medulla o Medulla below pons o Pons and Medulla Protective reflexes El Ex Coughing and sneezing Infant pathological reflexes El Rootingsucking when cheek stroked child turns head toward side touched strongest in first 2 months and disappears at 3 to 4 months breastfeeding reflex Moro s sudden loud noise causes abduction of arms with elbow flexion hands clenched disappear after 4 months baby gorillas Grasp Palmar Plantar infant will grasp anything placed in hand touching sole of foot will cause grasping motion of toes should disappear by 3 months palmar grasp reflex will gradually become voluntary Tonic Neck when head quickly turned to one side arms and legs will extend to the side opposite arm and leg will flex disappear by 3 to 4 months Pu to sit head lag common until 3 to 4 months Babinski s great toe flares and other toes spread when outer edge of sole is stroked should disappear by 12 months gorillas grasp and feel with feet 2 Trunk Incurvature when back is stroked beside spinal column the infant will move hips toward side stimulated 2 Stepping infant held so sole touches surface flexion and extension of leg resembling walking should disappear by 3 to 4 weeks 2 Extrusion when object is place in mouth the infant will push it out with tongue Orienting reflexes 2 Response to something unexpected breathe stopsheart stops ex dogs ears perk at loud sounds Cardiovascular respiratory digestive reflexes 2 When about to go on elliptical heart rate rises before even get on 2 Dive reflex heart beat slows when head goes into cold water 0 Cerebellum Old inner cerebellum balance linked to semicircular canals of ears and trochlear nerve that moves the eyebaHs 2 figures out what is up and down 2 ethyl alcohol toxic to inner cerebellum vodka beer ect New outer cerebellum rapid automatic movements timing of movements and thoughts Midbrain o Midbrain Reticular Formation right superior and inferior colliculi left 0 Midbrain reticular formation General arousal from a coma to red alert Sleepwake cycles up and down at night between sleep and awake cycles Pain perception if hurt in two areas one feels pain more than the other o Super colliculi left to right Visual targeting saccades Inferior hearingauditory targeting Superior involved in vision Forebrain o Basal Forebrain hypothalamus and thalamus Hypothalamus control of 2 Pituitary glands 9 thyroid adrenals bone growth slave to hypothalamus 2 Immune system 2 Autonomic Nervous System ANS fightflight Controls the heart digestive system and other organs Autonomic involuntary or automatics Determines fight or flight Acts more strongly when nervous than relaxed Influences endocrine system glands that produce hormones and release them into blood Sympathetic duringbefore the fact 0 increases heart rate breathing rate sweating and other processes important to fight or flight activities o Inhibits digestionsexual arousal which can take place after emergency is over 0 Controlled by chain of cells outside spinal chord Parasympathetic after the fact 0 controlled by cells and the top and bottom levels of the spinal chord o Decreases heart rate increases digestive activities and promotes body activities that take place during rest and relaxation 2 Control of hunger thirst body temperature and induction of fever pyrogens 2 Sexual orientation 2 Reward and punishment Drugs stimulate same area of brain as sex and food Thalamus sensory relay station Old Cortex Limbic system complex reaction patterns 4 F39s 2 Feeding fighting fleeing fucking Basal Ganglia 2 Background postural axial movements 2 Smooth pursuit eye movements 2 Regulation of foregroundbackground thinking breakdown 9 OCD 2 Diseases involving basal ganglia Parkinson39s disease 0 Resting tremor o Rigidity o Slowed movements 0 Confusion Huntington39s Chorea o Involuntary movements 0 Impaired speechswallowing O o Depressionirritability o Short term memory loss New Cortex Neocortex complex perception strategic movement higher intellectual functions Social Machiavellian intelligence Four Lobes of Neocortex shown below Frontal major motor areas Strategic thinking Social cognition Short term memory Languagemusic production Voluntary movements Primary motor cortex Damage to prefrontal lobe effects problem solving and planning ahead Prefrontal Lobotomy El El El El 193039s monkeys given partial prefrontal removal and made kindermore docile video on Phineas Gauge 9 while working on something in fields piece of metal went through prefrontal lobe of head 0 resulted in changed personality no longer hard working and diligent more laid back and calm Walter Freeman used on mental patients Typical effects 0 Reduced behavior spontaneity fat affect Similar prepost IQ s Concrete verbalizations Preservation Failure to sequence behavior poor following of instructions 0 Loss of strategic thinking OOOO o Pseudo depression 0 Pseudo psychopathy Parietal complex visualtouch perception forward from occipital lobe El El El Specialized for the body senses including touch pain temperature and awareness of location of body parts Right 9 body sense Left 9 arithmetic LR sense Primary somatosensory cortex a strip in the anterior portion of parietal lobe has cells sensitive to touch in different areas of body Largest areas devoted to touch in the most sensitive areas ie lips and hands Touch also activates areas important to emotional response ie smiling when gently strokes arm even when there39s damage to this cortex and cannot feel the touch Damage to Parietal lobe Interferes with spatial attention 9 see what an object is but not where Sometime have trouble finding parts of body going around objects even though they can see them ect Touch also inactivated Left Parietal Lobe Defect Gerstmann Syndrome Poor Handwriting Left right confusion Poor math skills Cannot distinguish among one s fingers Right Parietal Lobe Defect Neglect Syndrome Unable to see left side of everything Visual spatial neglect Temporal hearing and language decoding Located between left and right sides of head Long term memory 2 Faceobject identification 2 Epilepsy in temporal lobes 9 complex partial seizure disorder 2 Damage to auditory parts can hear but cannot sequence hearing In Language usually in left hemisphere impairment leads to trouble understanding speech and remembering names of objects 2 Defects in Temporal Lobe damage Long term memory Face blindness prosopagnosia Facial expression identification esp in Amgyda Sometimes violent outbursts Language comprehension Visual defects 9 fusiform gyrus areas that respond mainly to sight of faces Motion blindness cannot track speed or direction of movement ex pouring coffee cannot tell it is rising 2 Long term personality changes of Epilepsy TLE Over talkative with compulsive writing Obsession with detail and meaningfulness of trivia Interpersonally viscous Hyper religious with expanded sense of personal density Hyper moral Fetishism Sexual disinterest Occipital at rear of head specialized for vision 2 Visual feature detector cells 2 Visual pattern recognition occipital grasping 2 Damage cortical blindness No visual imagery even in dreams Still feel wakeful in day and sleep at night because eyes still intact and send signals Some experience blindsight ability to point to or otherwise indicate the direction to a visual stimulus without conscious perception of seeing anything at all ex can state objects color direction of movement and approx shape respond to facial expressions but see nothing Cerebral cortex 0 O O 0 Does not directly control muscles Sends output to pons and medulla control the muscles of head ex for chewing swallowing breathing and talking Spinal cord 9 controls many reflexes such as knee jerk reflex Reflex rapid automatic response to a stimulus Corpus Callosum a set of axons that connect the left and right hemispheres of the cerebral cortex 0 Epilepsy a condition in which cells somewhere in the brain emit abnormal rhythmic spontaneous impulses Cutting of corpus callosum can relieve epilepsy if medications do not work split brain patient 2 Keeps seizures on one side of body and lessens frequency of 2 Behavioral effects cannot connect actions of two parts of brain Cause seizures Saccades vs smooth tracking eye movements saccades are jerky eye movements controlled by superior colliculi midbrain smooth eye movements controlled by basal ganglia forebrain Phrenology linking lumps on your head to personality traits 1800s old way to of localization 0 Hemispheric lateralization two hemispheres of brain left and right connected by corpus callosum Convolutions wrinkles in Neocortex with rationale convolutions allow more surface area skull not big enough to hold Neocortex otherwise The Binding Problem the question of how separate brain areas combine forces to produce a unified perception of a single object 0 You bind things together that seem to occur simultaneously ie movement of a person39s mouth with the sound that comes out matching the movement 0 Damage to parietal cortex localizes sensations can cause problems with binding information together Language Areas of the Brain o Nonfluent Broca s aphasia frontal O Broken speech but comprehension intact Ex cookie jar fall over chair water empty Fluent Wernicke s aphasia temporal World salad with missing comprehension Ex this is a boy and that39s a boy an that39s a thing And this is going off soon Contralateral Control right side of brain controls left side of body and vice versa Spit Brain Patients 0 0 Which side of brain is responsible for language left When a picture is presented in the left visual field where is it sent Left eye 9 right side Two hemispheres are not connected so patients would be unable to say what they saw but could see what they saw Usually brain split to help fix epileptic seizures Parts of neuron cells in brain 0 0 Cell body soma contains nucleus of cell Dendrite widely branching structures that receive input from other neurons Axon single long thin straight fiber with branches near its tip Some covered in myelin an insulating sheath that speeds up the transmission of impulses along an axon Axon receives and transmits info to other cells and dendritecell body receive these messages Call can be inhibitory or excitory can either increase or decrease probability that the next cell will send a message of its own ex foot step on tac 9 only raise the hurt food because of inhibitory o Glia support the neurons in many ways such as by insulating them synchronizing activity among neighboring neurons and removing waste products smaller but more numerous than neurons Action Potential 0 Function of an axon is to convey information over long distances ex from skin to spinal cord o Axons convey information by process called action potential Action potential an excitation that travels along an axon at a constant strength no matter how far it travels o Allornone law either on or off like flicking a light switch 0 Touch perception goes through brain not area where you touch ex if brain area damaged cannot feel finger but if finger amputated may still feel 0 How action potential works 0 1 When axon not stimulated its membrane has resting potential an electrical polarization across the membrane or covering of an axon inside charge 70 from the negative charge of the proteins in axon as action potential moves down axon a mechanism called sodiumpotassium pump pushes sodium out and potassium in sodium ions more concentrated outside whereas potassium is more concentrated inside 0 2 Many axons produce spontaneous activity then input from other neurons can excite a neuron s membrane IF reaches 55 volts a threshold of an axon has its excitation reached and gates open for sodium and potassium ions to flow sodium ions rush inside because attracted to neg ions inside influx of positive charge of sodium is action potential process repeated by stimulation at next point on axon o 3 Potassium gates stay open long than sodium but potassium ions are no longer being attracted to the axon and tend to flow out of the cell their exit signals the resting potential Synapses explains why sensations from fingers and toes do not fade away by the time they reach your brain helps us understand the communication between neurons anesthetic drugs operate by clogging sodium gates and therefore silencing neurons ex Novocain 9 cannot feel pain even when the tooth is screaming with pain 0 Synapse the specialized junction between one neuron and another a neuron releases a chemical that either excites or inhibits the next neuron o Axons have several branches Each ends with presynaptic ending or terminal bouton When reach terminal bouton releases a neurotransmitter a chemical that activates the receptors on other neurons Postsynaptic neuron neuron that receives the end of the synapse Peptide transmitters 9 diffuse to a wider brain area and produce effects that last many minutes Tastesmell long slow messages Visualhearing quick sudden message Reuptake process by which the neuron is reabsorbed by the axon that released it Neurotransmitters and Behavior 0 Serotonin activates at least 15 kinds of receptors 0 Parkinson39s disease a condition that affects about 1 o of people over the age of 50 Symptoms difficulty initiating voluntary movements slow movements tremors rigidy and depressed moods Linked to gradual decay of pathway of axons that release the neurotransmitter dopamine Treatment Ldopa Neurons absorb Ldopa into brain and convert to dopamine Psychoactive Drugs alter experience by altering activity at synapses either increase or decrease reuptake agonist drug that increases activity in synapse antagonist a drug that decreases activity at a synapse Stimulants drugs that increase energy alertness and activity 0 O O O Amphetamine methamphetamine cocaine Block protein that presynaptic neuron uses to reabsorb dopamine or serotonin after releasing them Prolong effects of those transmitters and their receptors 2 Dopamine anything that strongly motivates people sex and food to gambling and video games Cocaine powdery form cocaine hydrochloride can be sniffed 2 Freebase cocaine before 1985 cocaine with hydrochloride removed giving fast entry intensifying experiencing 2 Crack cocaine 1985 cocaine already converted to freebase rocks ready to be smoked crack produces rush of potent effects within seconds Behavioral effects depend on the dose 2 Low level enhance attention U used for ADHD in form of Adderall 2 High level confusion impaired attention impulsiveness Physical effects 2 higher heart rate blood pressure and body temp 2 risk of convulsions 2 lung damage 2 heart attack At first produces arousal and pleasant effects but when wears begin to experience mild lethargy and depression until neurons rebuild supply of dopamine reuptake and other transmitters Methylphenidate Ritalin different because taken in pills and the entire process is slower and less dramatic Tobacco delivers nicotine increasing wakefulness and arousal 2 Stimulates synapses responsive to neurotransmitter acetylcholine 2 Many people believe smoking relaxes them depressant because after smoking continuously it takes away the comedown effect 2 People get so addicted because become more responsive to nicotine and less to other pleasant events 0 Hallucinogens drugs that induce sensory distortions Derived from mushrooms or plants and other are manufactured LSD lysergic and diethylamide distorts sensations and sometimes produces a dreamlike state or an increase mystical experience 2 Attaches mainly to one kind of serotonin receptor 2 Stimulates those receptors at irregular times Peyote hallucinogen derived from cactus plant has long history in native American religious ceremonies MDMA methylenedioxymethamphetamine aka ecstasy 2 Produces stimulant effects similar to amphetamine at low doses and hallucinogenic effects similar to LSD at high doses 2 Used to increase energy however when wears off people feel lethargic and depressed 2 Repeating users show increased anxiety and depression and impairments of attention memory and sleep persist for a year or more after quitting 2 Increases body temp to sometimes dangerous levels 0 Depressants drugs that decrease arousal Ex alcohol and anxiolytics anxiety reducing drugs Alcohol a class of molecules that includes methanol ethanol propyl alcohol rubbing alcohol and others ethanol is the type people drink 2 Relaxes people by facilitating activity at inhibitory synapses 2 Greater amounts can increases risk taking behavior like aggression by suppressing fears and inhibitions that limit behaviors 2 Binge drinking suppresses breathing and heart rate to dangerous degree 2 Damages liver and other organs aggravates medical conditions and impairs memorymotor control 2 During pregnancy damage baby39s brain health and appearance Anxiolytic drugstranquilizers help people relax 2 Most common benzodiazepines like diazepam valium and alprazolam Xanax Calm people by facilitating transmission at inhibitory synapses When mixed with alcohol produce dangerous suppression of breathing and heart rate Flunitrazepam Rohhypnol date rape drug 0 Dissolves quickly in water 0 No color taste or odor o Induces drowsiness clumsiness memory impairment 0 Can predict it with a urine test O GHB gamma hydroxybutyrate another date rape drug 0 Can be made easily through household ingredients 0 Relaxes body and impairs muscle coordination 0 Large doses vomiting tremors coma death Narcotics drugs that produce drowsiness insensitivity to pain and decreased responsiveness Opiates either natural drugs derived from opium poppy or synthetic drugs with a chemical structure resembling natural opiates 2 Make people feel happy warm and content 2 Morphine used as medical pain killer Nausea and withdrawal from world Come down anxiety pain and exaggerated responsiveness to sounds and other stimuli 2 Morphine heroine methadone and codeine Bind to specific receptors in brain block pain in brain not skin Endorphins neurotransmitters produce to the brain that bind to the opiate receptors inhibit chronic pain 0 Also associated with exercise runner s high and a good song thrill 2 Addiction comes from need for medication in the first place not usually addictive when being used in medical setting Marijuana Poor memory only while using Hard to classify because does not fall under other categories Medical uses reduces nausea suppresses tremors reduces pressure in eyes decreases cell loss in brain after stroke 2 More effective in protecting brain if used BEFORE strong or immediately after Increases risk of Parkinson39s disease long term use probably increases risk of lung cancer Active ingredients THC or tetrahydrocannabinol 2 Attaches to receptors that abundant throughout brain 2 Then brain produces anandamide and 2 AG that control memory and movement but absent from medulla controls heart rate and breathing located in presynaptic neuron 2 Increases activity in brain area responsible for feeding and appetite Endocrine System glands that produce hormones and release them into the blood 0 Hormones controlled by hypothalamus and pituitary gland regulate other endocrine organs 0 Hormones chemicals released by glands and conveyed by the blood to alter activity in various organs Produce temporary changes in the excitability of cells and influence survival growth and connections of cells Androgenestrogen play important role in difference in anatomies of male and female Amygdala and emotion links our experiences with their meaningsemotions 0 Gateway among the sites that are heavily involved in decision making memory and motivation 0 Disease herpes encephalitis causes humans to show odd emotional indifference to events remaining especially calm when provoked or threatened 9314 938 AM 9314 938 AM 9314 938 AM
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