Unit 1: Cell, Embryology, Tissues, Integumentary System Note Cards
Unit 1: Cell, Embryology, Tissues, Integumentary System Note Cards BMS 208-03
Popular in Human Anatomy
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biomedical Sciences
This 23 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Schutzenhofer on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BMS 208-03 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Lanier in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 130 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Biomedical Sciences at Grand Valley State University.
Reviews for Unit 1: Cell, Embryology, Tissues, Integumentary System Note Cards
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/18/15
Accessory Structures part of the Integumentary System composed of hair nails glands and associated glands Adipose Connective Tissue stores fat and insulates protects surrounds kidney and other organs found in subcutaneous layer Antagen Growth stage of hair production Apocrine Sweat Gland Armpits nipples groin axillary anal sticky cloudy odorous secretion Organic parts of the cell plus the oils living environment for bacteria these areas very prone to infections Areolar Connective Tissue binds and packs organs surrounds nerves vessels and subcutaneous layer Arrector Pili Muscle raises the hair away from the skin traps the air around the skin detects vibrations Axon part of the neurons carries outgoing signals to other cells Bone Tissue A type of Supporting Connective Tissue Functions rigid support protection aid in movement blood cell formation storage for chemicals Bulb follicle forms a hair bulb around the papillae Cardiac Muscle Tissue Cells are short striated and have intercalated disks between themallows for specific ions that activiate the cardiac muscle cells to spread quickly throughout the entire organ synchronous contraction relies on these disks Involuntary muscle tissue Catagen stage of hair growth where cell division stops and the follicle shrinks Cell Body part of the neurons houses the nucleus amp other organelles controls the rest of the cell amp produces protein for the cell Centrioles Organize microtubules during cell division for movement of chromosomes Centrosome Organizes microtubules participates in spindle formation during cell division Chromatin and Chromosomes Site of genes in the DNA Cilia Move fluid mucus and materials over the cell surface Columnar Cell taller columnlike cell CompactDense amp SpongyCancellous Types of bone tissue Compound tubular compound acinar The two forms of Exocrine Gland compound ducts Connective Tissue Connecting different systems by delivery of goods throughout the body most diverse tissue Three main types Connective Tissue Proper The binding materials attachment points the cu shioninglike fats The nine types are LooseAreolar Con nective Tissue Dense Connective Tissue Adipose Tissue Dense Regular Connective Tissue Dense Irregular Connective Tissue Elastic Con nective Tissue Hyaline Cartilage Fibrocartilage Elastic Cartilage Cortex Center of the root is many layers of flattened dead keratinocytes Cuboidal Cell cell shaped like a cube Cuticle layer of translucent dead keratinocytes that surrounds the cortex Cytoplasm Place of many metabolic processes of the cell stores nutrients and dissolved solutes Cytoskeleton Provides structural support facilitates cytoplasmic streaming organelle and cellular motility transport of materials and chromosomal movement and cell division Cytosol Provides support for organelles serves as viscous medium through which diffusion occurs Dendrites part of the neuron bring stimulation to the neuron receives the signals and transmits them to the cell body Dense Connective Tissue Three types are Dense Regular Connective Tissue Dense Irregular Connective Tissue Elastic Connective Tissue Dense Irregular Connective Tissue collagen fibers arranged in random array dermis amp capsules oforgans Dense Regular Connective Tissue collagen fibers arranged parallel to direction of stress tendons amp ligaments Dermis made up of connective tissue contains a papillary layer and a reticular layer Ectoderm During this phase of the embryonic period the epidermal tissue is developed as well as the spinal cord nerves endocrine organs and structures of the eyes Elastic Connective Tissue elastic fibers arranged in parallel array medium sized arteries ligaments between vertebrae Embryonic Period Begins wthe establishment of three primary germ gastrulation layers from which all adult human structure are derived Ectoderm Mesoderm and Endoderm Endocrine Glands glands without ducts secrete directly into the bloodstream glands that produce hormones Endoderm During this germ layer of the embryonic period the respiratory and digestive systems are developed Epidermis Epithelial Tissue composed of five layers Stratum Basale Stratum Spinosum Stratum Granulosum Stratum Lucidum and Stratum Corneum Epithelial Tissue Most superficial tissue FU NCTION provides protection absorption of nutrients and molecules and secretion of sweat and saliva etc CHARACTERISTICS One su rface is always exposed to either flu id or air totally cellular no blood vessels receives all nutrients through diffusion cells rest on basement membrane TYPES simple squamous simple cu boidal simple columnar stratified squamous pseudo stratified ciliated columnar and transitional Exocrine glands glands with ducts 2 regions that carry out secretions the duct portion and the secretory portion Flagellum Propels sperm in human male Fluid Connective Tissue Blood Fluid Connective Tissue Supporting Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper What are the three main types of Connective tissue tube that surrounds the root hair FollicleConnective Tissue EXtendS down into the dermis 8 Sheath sometimes the subcutaneous layer towards the blood vessel that provides blood flow Glandular Epithelial Tissue Contains endocrine and exocrine glands secretions Glial Cells form specific surroundings for the cell Several different types Support and protect neurons Common and only source of true cancer in the nervous system Golgi Apparatus Modifies packages and sorts newly synthesized proteins for secretion inclusion in new plasma membrane or lysosomal enzyme synthesis Growth Stages of hair Anagen Catagen Telogen Hair Composed of shaft root follicle papillae bulb cortex cuticle sebaceous gland arrector pili muscle matrix Hair loss tighteningconstricting up of blood vessels causes this HypodermisSubcutaneous connective tissue adipose tissue Loose areolar and adipose connective tissue Contains large Layer arteries and veins Adipose Tissue here for extra cushion and energy storage Inclusions Store materials Inorganic Bone Matrix 23 ofthe bone matrix is made up of these components as we get older we get more ofthese components and our bones become more brittle and less flexible The Integumentary System contains skin and accessory organs Functions Protection Excretion Thermal regulation goose bumps Storage of Nutrients Lipids Synthesis of vitamin D Perception ofthe environment all the receptors nervous system receptors embedded in the skin Intermediate Filaments Provide structural support stabilize cell junctions Ke rati nocytes carry the pigment divide very rapidly help with the synthesis of the protein Keratin Levels of Organization in the human body Chemical cell tissue organ organ systems and organism Loose Connective Tissue Areolar Connective tissue amp Adipose Tissue Digests materials or microbes Lysosomes ingested by the cell removes old and damaged organelles selfdestruct autolyze Matrix the dead cells that get pushed out of the papillae Melanocytes do not divide very rapidly produce the pigmentmelaninabsorbs UV radiation protecting deeper layers dermis from damage to protein and fibers activity of these cells is the reasoning behind people39s skin tone Ancestors exposed to sunlight more often leads to them having more active blank Merocrine Sweat Gland Widely distributed secretes water and electrolytes Mesoderm During this germ layer ofthe embryonic period the muscles in the main organ system develop heart kidneys ect Dermis Muscle tissue and connective tissue developed Microfilaments Maintain cell shape aid in muscle contraction and intracellular movement separate dividing cells Microtubules Support cell hold organelles in place maintain cell shape and rigidity direct organelle movement within cell and cell motility as cilia and flagella move chromosomes at cell division Microvilli Increase membrane surface area for increased absorption andor secretion Mitochondria Synthesize most ATP during cellular respiration quotPowerhouses of the cellquot Muscular Tissue Three types Skeletal Cardiac and smooth Nervous Tissue Found in the brain and spinal cord the central nervous system and the peripheral nerves Cells found in the tissue are neurons and glial cells Neurons functional unit of the nervous system conducts impulses from one body region to another composed of cell body axon and dendrites Nuclear Envelope Physical barrier between nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm Nuclear Pores Allow for passage of materials between nucleus and cytoplasm Nucleolus or Nucleoli Synthesizes rRNA and assembles ribosomes in the nucleus Acts as cell control center NUCIEUS controls all genetic information DNA site of ribosome subunit assembly Organelles Carry out specific metabolic activities of the cell Organic Bone Matrix 13 of the bone matrix is made up of this type of matrix you have more of these components the younger you are and they make your bones more flexible more collagen fibers so the bones are harder to break Osteoblast Bone cell that builds the bones solid matrix Osteoclast Bone cell that removes the bones solid matrix quuifies it Osteocyte Bone cell that maintains the bone Papillae made up of connective tissue and contains blood vessels and nerves it is the attachment of the hair follicle to the blood vessels within the dermis Papillary Layer looser layer closer to the epidermis Composed of areolar connective tissue Project into epidermis forming dermal papillae projections which interlock with epidermal ridges Contains blood vessels and nerves Wavyness allows space for more receptors more sensitive to touch and temperature Peroxisomes Converts hydrogen peroxide formed during metabolism to water Plasma Cell Membrane Contains receptors for communication forms intercellular connections acts as physical barrier to enclose cell contents regulates material movement into and out of the cell Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar STRUCTURE Single layer of cells with varying heights that appears multilayered all cells connect to the basement membrane Has goblet cells and cilia FUNCTION Catch and trap impurities Involved in secretion of mucin and movement of mucus across surface by ciliary action LOCATION lines most of respiratory tract including nasal cavity part of pharynx larynx trachea bronchi Reticular Layer Denser layer Dense irregular connective tissue lots of fibers arranged in all sorts of directions Bundles of collagen and elastin fibers Wrinklesfibers produced at a lower rate Layer of the skin where pigment can be placed Ribosomes Synthesize proteins for 1 use in the cell free ribosomes 2 secretion incorporation into plasma membrane or lysosomes fixed ribosomes Root below the surface composed of dead epithelial cells Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Synthesizes proteins for secretion new proteins for the plasma membrane and lysosomal enzymes transports and stores molecules Sebaceous Gland the gland producing oilsebum whose function is to make your hair more pliable sebaceous follicle excretes sebum onto skin Shaft visible part of the hair composed of dead epithelial cells Simple Columnar One layer of taller than they are wide cells Found anywhere from the beginning of the stomach down to end of the colon gallbladder and stomach Simple Cuboidal One layer of cubeshaped cells Found in the walls of kidney tubules surface of ovaries ducts of glands Simple Epithelium One layer of cells Simple Squamous One layer of squamous cells found in the Respiratory System in the alveoli air sacs in lung tissue Simple Squamous Epithelium One layer of flattened cells Simple Squamous Mesothelium Simple Squamous Endothelium Simple tubular simple branched tubular simple coiled tubular simple acinar simple branched acinar The five forms of Exocrine Gland simple ducts Skeletal Muscle Tissue Fibers are long striated pattern of banding and parallel Voluntary muscle tissue that is attached to bone and skin SkinCutaneous Membrane part of the integumentary system composed of the epidermis dermis and hypodermis Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Synthesizes lipids metabolizes carbohydrates detoxifies drugs amp alcohol Smooth Muscle Tissue Cells are short and nonstriated Involuntary muscle tissue found on the walls of arteries to contract and allows for the blood to travel to different parts of the body quicker Squamous Cell atceH Stratified Epithelium More than one layer of cells Stratified Squamous More than one layer of flat cells Found in the epidermis of the skin esophagus oral cavity and rectum any opening Stratum Basale Single layer of stem cells all keratinocytes attached to basement membrane separating epidermis from the dermis Germ layer allowing cells to divide very Rapidly The layer that makes up our fingerprints This layer contains keratinocytes and melanocytes Stratum Corneum Thick layer of dead keratinocytes 2030 layers of dead scaly interlocking keratinized cells corneocytes Stratum Granulosum cells filled with granules of waxy protein keratinprovides protection from drying out losing hydration cells here eventually die and their cell membranes break and allow the keratin to flow out Stratum Luciderm translucent thin layer of keratinocytes 23 cell layers thick and found only on thick skin such as on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet Stratum Spinosum the keratinocytes attach to their neighbors by intercellularjunctions called desmosomes When epithelial tissue is prepared to look at on a slide the cytoplasm shrinks and the keratinocytes in this layer appear to have spines Langerhans cells Supporting Connective Tissue interconnectsbinds structures protects tissues solid tissue ex Bone solid matrix amp Cartilage semisolid matrix Sweat Gland composed of apocrine and merocrine glands Telogen stage of hair growth when the hauisshed Three Types of Cells Squamous Cuboidal and Columnar Transitional Epithelium STRUCTURE Epithelial appearance varies depending on whether the tissue is stretched or relaxed FUNCTION Changes its shape distension and relaxation to accommodate urine volume changes in bladder ureters and urethra LOCATION Bladder part of urethra ureters Wrinkles caused by Decreased of dermal papillae eastin fibers are reduced disorganizeddenatured due to UV exposure oss of fat padding in the hypodermis Fibers in the dermis made out of protein that can be affected by heat and changing shape holowness under eyes caused by loss of subcutaneous fat cells that support the vessels in this layer
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'