Week 4 Notes - HIST 1302
Week 4 Notes - HIST 1302 Hist 1302
Popular in History of U.S. since 1865
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Haynes on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1302 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Ransom P. Cross in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see History of U.S. since 1865 in History at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
HIST 1302 History of the US Since 1865 Week 4 1 Industrial Society A B C The economy relies on manufacturers for its Gross Domestic Product GDP Ideological beliefs are not really an issue in this sort of society 1 The world s leading capitalist economy and manufacturer China has a socialist AKA communist government Religion can exclude certain aspects of an industrial society but overall religious beliefs don t really interfere with this type of society D 1 In India cattle are considered sacred therefore there is no beef industry within India a Other industries take over for the lack of a beef industry The United States industrial society 1 The economy and society evolved into an industrial society over the years 2 How a One company gives rise to several other companies 1 A car company gives rise to a tire company a car parts company an engine company a mining company for the metal used to build the cars etc 11 Sources of Economic Growth A New technological developments 1 Thomas Edison harnessed electricity to create the light bulb 2 The gasoline powered internal combustion engine was produced a Gave rise to the eventual development of cars b The basic concepts of this engine are still what we use today 1 Started up related industries a Oil industry battery recycling plants etc The emergence of large corporations 1 In the late 19th and early 20th centuries a These corporations allowed for national markets to emerge 2 In the 21St century a These corporations allow for international markets to emerge 3 Both results are caused by the development of an industrial society Mass production and distribution 1 Corporations began this technique in order to take advantage of the entirety of the national market Corporate consolidation 1 In order for corporations and business to solve some of their competition issues they started the a Merger Movement 1 Companies would join forces in order to grow larger and reduce the competition between them and other companies 2 Thus increasing the revenue of both companies Revolution in management 1 Complex corporate hierarchies became necessary as companies grew larger than ever before a Compartmentalize everything 1 Emergence of the management pyramid 2 Formation of a new middle class a Upper Middle Class 1 White Collar Workers a Top Tier Management i President ii Vice President b Middle Class 1 Blue Collar Workers a Laborers in factories c Lower Middle Class 1 Commoners a Farmers and ranchers F Scientific management is widely adopted 1 The Principles of Scientific Management by Frederick Winslow Taylor contained key information on how to use scientific management a The information provided in this book was ahead of its time b However once it was applicable to industrial society it became extremely valuable to corporations 2 It was sometimes difficult to apply the principles from Taylor s book to actual companies a Employers cared more about their employees 1 Employers began to invest money in their employees through training programs due to the fact that employees needed to know how to use the latest technology 2 Raises work perks and paid vacation days increased due to the fact that employers did not want their trained employees to be stolen by another company 111 Robber Baron Corporations are No More A Emergence of new large scale charity work among corporate heads 1 Andrew Carnegie a Founder of US Steel b Wrote the Gospel of Wealth 1 Gave excess wealth from his company back to the people in the form of trusts parks education and more John D Rockefellar a Founder of Standard Oil Company b Also gave excess wealth to the community IV Obsession with Physical and Racial Fitness A Started as a positive 1 Many people believed in the idea that being physically fit was paralleled with being prosperous 6 a Followed along the lines of Theodore Roosevelt s strenuous life b Health means wealth initiative Resulted in the creation of national parks Gave women more freedom than they possessed previously a They were allowed to participate in this movement in society Turned negative 1 Racism makes another appearance a Many Americans began to believe that WASPs were superior 1 White Anglo Saxon Protestant b Emergence of Social Darwinism 1 Survival of the fittest a Society s sneaky racism under the guise of science 2 Grew in popularity over the years of industrial growth a Social Darwinist stated that this ideology was founded in science 3 The most popular application of Social Darwinism was a Nazi Germany c Social Darwinism Expansion 1 Educated professional claimed they knew what was scientifically sound and what was not because of their higher educations 2 Reality a They were not in their fields therefore they were just spreading their beliefs and passing them off as fact 2 Eugenics reappeared once more with the authority of the state behind it a Eugenics is the belief that there is a dominant race and that biology can be modified to create said race V Immigration A From the late 1800s to the early 1900s 1 23 million immigrants ocked to the US a Mostly from Europe B Differences between new immigrants and old immigrants 1 New immigrants a Came to the US in hopes of acquiring land and a better standard of liVing due to the fact that Europe had no land available b However they were considered foreigners in the US just like the old immigrants 2 Old immigrants a Escaping persecution C New immigrants were welcomed into the US as much needed laborers 1 3 Typically worked at back breaking difficult and unskilled jobs a Hard factory labor ditch digging etc b Many of the jobs they accomplished did not even require the workers to speak English Many immigrants grouped together in professions by ethnicity a Germans were known for their carpentry skills Irish for their leatherwork etc 1 Within this ethnic domain the immigrants sorted themselves into professions The immigrants were confronted with opposition by workers unions as well as old immigrants a Unless you were part of the workers union you did not work D In the late 1800s 500000 Japanese and Chinese immigrants ocked to the US in search of a better life 1 2 Met with immediate racism by Caucasians a Why 1 The Asian population that moved to the US were different a Their dress speech food utensils and other things were different than the traditional European standards of the US The majority of Chinese and Japanese accomplished the hard labor required to build the railroad system many died in dangerous accidents 3 After the railroads were completed the workers unions and others began to put pressure on the government to get the Chinese and Japanese out of the US a Lead to the Chinese Exclusion Act 1 Today this law would be unconstitutional because it is discriminating against immigrants of a particular race 2 However the US can pass a law barring all immigrants entrance into the US 4 The living conditions for the Asian immigrants were extremely difficult and subpar a Many reformists believed that this was wrong and should be corrected 1 Unfortunately they made very little headway because they were viewed as siding with the enemy VI Building Ethnic Communities A Immigrants created their own networks and communities amongst each one s ethnicity 1 The recreated their old Country groups however they made modifications to them in order to better adapt to their situation in the US a Italians would go to Little Italy 2 Another reason the immigrants stuck with their own ethnicity is because they were safer a safety in numbers VII African American Laboring Community A African Americans could not recreate their old Country groups because they were forcibly ripped from their culture and lost it in their years of forced servitude 1 In addition most African Americans continued to live in rural areas doing the same jobs they had been doing before the Civil War B Several African Americans traveled North in search of a better life 1 They were treated worse than the new immigrants and were still discriminated against by the North and the South C There was a decline in the older African American middle class during this period E 1 Caused by the fact that whites began to realize there was a huge market for African American products African American institutions became more permanent 1 Churches political organizations etc Community building was much more difficult for African Americans than for new immigrants 1 Why a African Americans were Viewed as white peoples opposites VIII Worker and Unions A Samuel Gompers and the American Federation of Labor 1 An 18905 movement that concentrated on unifying and organizing craftsmen and skilled workers a This new system was required for the new working class because the workers had to be literate 2 This labor union worked tirelessly to negotiate good contracts for these workers 3 This organization avoided politics in general in order to keep from eliminating workers based on political beliefs a Labor unions cannot avoid politics today due to the fact that Republicans are against labor unions while Democrats are for labor unions 1 Labor unions are Democratic 4 Unskilled workers were widely ignored by this organization a Unskilled workers follow whatever the rest of the employees are doing 1 Sheep 2 They didn39t have to convince them to join IX J ovs of the Big CitV A Companies emerged solely for workers to spend their disposable income 1 Disposable income money left after bills 2 Places such as a Amusement Parks b Libraries 1 Most often in big cities 2 Increased educated workers more revenue for companies c Movies 1 Most popular 2 Inexpensive 3 All the movies shown were a In good taste b Women in the first films wore ankle length skirts or dresses long sleeves blouses up to their necks and were prim and proper the entire movie X New Sexualitv and the New Woman A Women began to fight the classical views of Victorian ideals 1 Separate spheres a No more covering up B The battle against these ideas were lead mostly by young women however some men did aid them on their quest C Increased awareness and desire for women s suffrage and women s rights 1 Cries for gender equality D This process mainly occurred in urban areas 10 1 Caused extreme worry for many conservatives a Especially farmers and rural workers 11