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Notes from 9/14/2015-9/18/2015

by: Brady Scafe

Notes from 9/14/2015-9/18/2015 Chemistry 103

Brady Scafe
General Chemistry
Professor Boulter

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About this Document

Discussion on Molecules, Atoms, and Compounds. As well as Isotopes, Ions, and Ionic and Covalent Bonds
General Chemistry
Professor Boulter
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brady Scafe on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Chemistry 103 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Professor Boulter in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.


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Date Created: 09/18/15
Chapter 2 Atoms Molecules and Ions gtAncient History 0 4th Century BC Democritus after Leucuppus Nature is quotatomosquot separated by void 0 In nite in number 0 Many varieties shapes and sizes 0 In constant random motion and collision o Collisions lead to de ection endlessly 0 Or to combination of particles to form substances which we can perceive 0 Concepts don39t arise again until 17th and 18th centuries o Plato after Empedocles Nature is quotfour primordial substancesquot and quotaetherquot matter is continuous not divisible quotelementsquot are representative of types of matter 0 3rd Century BC Epicurus 0Found that space constitutes the majority of an atoms vmume Aristote gt Historical roots of modern chemistrv o Alchemy roots in ancient Egypt with later contributions from the region of Arabia Simiar beliefs arose in China Tibet and India Deat with the puri cation and mixing of metals used for currency and industry AND prolonging life the quotphilosopher39s stonequot originally for eternal life AND EVENTUALLY the conversion of quotbase metalsquot into gold Pb2Au o Alchemy s central theme was the puri cation or perfection of matter including humans but the approach was more experimental than philosophical lt viewed chemistry like cooking add a little bit of oxygen like adding a bit of cayenne pepper or cinnamon to a recipe Instead add another element and make something completely different oEx Carbon and Oxygen are atoms that form the basis of life combined 11 carbon monoxide is toxic 0Sodium and Chlorine are both dangerously reactive combined they make table salt oHydrogen is extremely ammable and Oxygen promotes combustion combined water puts out res 0 Atoms Protons neutrons and electrons subatomic particles Are neutral particles by de nition Like charges repel dissimilar charges attract o If charged are called ions Mass 0 Protons have a mass of 1 amu o Neutrons have a mass of 1 amu 0Electrons mass is small Number of Protons Number of electrons H o JJ Thompson Corpuscles 0Suggest the quotplum puddingquot model of the atom o The atom is dense and full of quotfruitsquot like a plum pudding 0 Everything would be evenly distributed Look for gure of moving atoms on page 0 Rutherford Gold Foil Experiment Gold Foil is famous for being expensive and being formed into very thin sheets Took the foil and shot a source of particles through a small o ce Particles would either be de ected straight back some would de ect a different direction and go straight through 0Came to the conclusion of the nucleus because they were bouncing back to each other 0 RefutesJJ Thompson and his quotplum puddingquot model 0 Milikan39s experimented 19081932 oil drop experiment enabled him to determine the absolute charge on an electron same in size but opposite in charge to the proton Established ratio between electron charge and mass As well as determining mass 0 1592x10quot19 C a value surprisingly close to the currently accepted value of 1602x10quot19 Coulomb 0 Where are the Neutrons James Chadwick 0 Did not know that the neutron existed until the 19205 Characterized the presence of the Neutron in the Nucleus 0 Did this through very clever experimentation gt Atomic Number Describes the number protons and electrons in an atom ex Argon Ar has an atomic number of 18 gt Atomic Mass Number Mass number of p of n not usually the same as atomic mass May change 0Because of isotopes gt Atomic Mass Mass of a single atom of the element in units of amu or u Argon Ar has an atomic mass of 39948 gt Mass Spectrometer o The masses of isotopes and their abundances are determined experimentally by mass spectrometry Larger mass ions don39t make the curve de ect too little from magnets Smaller mass ions will over shoot the curve de ect too much from magnets gt lsot0pe Abundance o The mass spectrometer gives information on the mass and relative abundance of each element s isotopes 1 0 Each isotope is represented by a Relative Abundance The number of elements or compounds of a particular kind as a percentage of the total number of elements or compounds in a given area or community 0 Dictates how we average the isotopic masses to calculate the atomic weight For a particular isotope Average value of all isotopes Ex Boron B with Atomic Weight of 11801 of abudance B with Atomic Weight of 10 199 of abudance 801100 08011119910 MassAbundanceMass2Abundance2etc gt Nonradioactive stable isotopes 0 Hydrogen H has two isotopes H with a weight of 1 9999 abundance D with a weight of 2 001 abundance Water can come in two ways 0 H20 9999 HDO 001 gt Periodic Properties 0 Elements were rst gt Peridoic Table 0 Dmitri Mendeleev 18341907 developed the periodic table 0 Essential items Periods rows Groups columns Metals Nonmetals Metalloids Halogens Noble Gases Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth metals Lanthanide and Actinide series Spd and f series gt How did we get here 0 1624 Etienne de Clave arrested for heresy for holding a debate on atomistic philosophy with a group of French revolution 0 Robert Boyle experimentalist 16271691 The Sceptical Chemist 1661 Argues against 4 Platonic elements But still believes in transmutationalchmey Matter consists of atoms and clusters of atoms in motion Every phenomenon was the result of collisions of particles in motion All substances are element unless divisible Daniel Bernoulli publishes quotHydrodynamiquequot o A New System of Chemical Philosophy 1808 Each element made up of atoms Which cannot be created destroyed divided or converted All atoms of each type have the same properties quotreactionsquot involve reorganizing atoms joining separating and gt Chemical Equations 0 Word description Methane reacts with oxygen to yield carbon dioxide and water 0 Symbolic representation of a chemical reaction 0 CH4 3 02 gasC02 2 H20 gt Representing Molecules 0 Compounds combinations of elements different types of atoms in whole number ratios Molecular covalent formula represents the smallest unit of that substance that retains all of its characteristics Ionic simplest representation establishes the lowest common denominator between the ions composing it Have very different properties Molecular Formula 5 and types of each atom Condensed Formula indicates how certain atoms are grouped together Structural Formula Shows the connections bonds 0 Molecular Model Give 3D perspective gt long and Ionic Compounds 0 lons are atoms or groups of atoms with an integer number of positive or negative charges o Anions and cations combine in integer ratios to make ionic compounds gt Forming Cations and Anions A cation forms when an atom loses one or more electrons An anion forms when an atom gains one or more electrons The tendency of atomslj ions determined by location on periodic table Metals generally form positively charged ions Nonmetals created negatively charged ions 000 00000


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