ENVS Week 5
ENVS Week 5 ENVS 101 004
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bianca Notetaker on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENVS 101 004 at University of New Mexico taught by Priewisch in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see The Blue Planet in Environmental Science at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
Bonding Representing Molecules and Naming Monday September 142 2 15 957 AM 0 Types of chemical bonds 0 Covalent bonding I Solid at lower temperatures I Pure Nonpolar covalent bonds Electrons shared equally I Polar covalent bonds elections shared unequally O Ionic bonding I Solid at room temperature I Electronic exchange 0 Atomic and ionic Lewis dot structures 0 Only valence electrons are involved in chemical bonding O 1 start with electron configuration 0 2 arrange dots around the atom symbol for each electron 2 dots per quadrant maxput them singularly before doubling them up I Placement doesn39t matter but each orbital should be represented O 3 for ions you39re either going to add or remove needed electrons and display the charge I Brackets for anions I No brackets needed if all valence electrons are stripped 0 Ionic bonds 0 Ionic bonds form from two electrons cations and anions generally one is metal 0 Electrons are transferred 0 Write a formula unit describing the ratio of elements but ionic compounds Esposito as an extended lattice or network 0 Electrons are transferred from metals to nonmetals O Ions attract according to Coulomb39s law I F k q1q2r2 all numbers are subscripts 0 Covalent bonds 0 Nonmetals form covalent bonds with other nonmetals 0 Hydrogen is considered a nonmetal when bonded to another nonmetal 0 Remember Hearing is not always equal due to polar and Nonpolar bonds 0 Single chemical bonds are often depicted with a line I A line represents two electrons o Electronegativity I The ability of atoms in a covalent bond to attract the electrons to itself I Noble gases are not defined because they tend to not participate in covalent bonds I Fluorine has an electronegativity of 4the most electronegative element I The remaining elements are ranked relative to Fluorine from 04 I Increases up and to the right on the periodic table 0 Polarity I Considered per bond but individual contributions determine whether these sum up to make the entire molecule or not I Higher freezing and boiling points I The arrow always points from negative to positive across a bond I Requirements for polar molecules III Polarities do not sum up to zero III A polar bond I The greater the difference in electronegativity the more polar the bond is which can sometimes end up in an ionic bond New Section 1 Page 1 0 Formation of an ionic compound 0 Often involve metals with predictable charge and states and some that are variable 0 Naming ionic compounds 1 Determined if it39s a metal and a nonmetal 2 Does the metal have one charge state or more than one charge states 3 Name according to the rules include Roman numerals if multiple charge states are present 0 Writing a balanced ionic formula 0 O O 1 Writing down the ions with their charges 2 The ionic formula must be a neutral charge 3 make sure the formula is the simplest possible reduce if common factors 0 Polyatomic ons O 0000 O This is the molecules overall charge Need to have extra electrons or need to give up some electrons For ionic bonding treat these Polyatomic ions as if they were a single unit Parenthesis can help make things clear Compounds with Polyatomic ions have both covalent and ionic bonding I Bonded internally with covalent bonds Common Polyatomic ions Sulfate nitrate chlorate phosphate acetate hydroxide 0 Lewis structure rules 1 2 3 4 0 Take electron inventory Write out the skeletal bond structure single bonds first Complete octets and satisfy octet rule unless exception applies and retake inventory Evaluate stability of a structure using formal charges Resonance I When one Lewis structure isn39t enough EX OCO as opposed to H I Bond length is inversely proportionate to bond strength I Bond strength is proportionate to bond order New Section 1 Page 2 Geosphere Earthquakes Tuesday September 15 Z 15 935 AM 0 Plate boundariesnatural hazards 0 Earthquakes DIVERGENT BOUNDARY CONTINENTAL COLLISION BOUNDARY TRANSFORM FAULT BOUNDARY SUBDUCTION ZONE BOUNDARY 0 Plate boundaries and earthquakes I Divergent plate boundaries have weak and shallow earthquakes I Transform plate boundaries have shallow but powerful earthquakes I Convergent boundariescontinental collision have deep or shallow and powerful earthquakes I Convergent boundariessubduction zone have the deepest and most powerful earthquakes they are deepest along descending plate O change in size or shape of body a break or fracture change reverses when force is removed Elastic energy is stored in rock masses I An earthquake is a sudden release of stored elastic energy Ex bending wood stores elastic energy breaking a price of wood releases that energy Rock masses breakslip along other rock mass 0 O O 00 I Rock masses become locked together along rough fault surfaces I Tectonic forces push in locked rock masses leading to deformation resulting in more elastic energy being stored I When a locked fault slips energy is suddenly released I The longer a lock holds the more energy builds up and is released when an earthquake happens New Section 1 Page 1
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