Chapter One: Intro into Anatomy and Physiology Notes
Chapter One: Intro into Anatomy and Physiology Notes BIOL 237 001
Popular in Human Anatomy and Physiology I for the Health Sciences
Popular in Biology
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Notetaker on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 237 001 at University of New Mexico taught by Shaner in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I for the Health Sciences in Biology at University of New Mexico.
Reviews for Chapter One: Intro into Anatomy and Physiology Notes
Great notes!!! Thanks so much for doing this...
-Kaylee Renner MD
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/18/15
Chapter One Intro to Anatomy and Physiology 1 Anatomy study of structure giving names to these structures a Macroscopic the bigger surfaces leg heart etc b Microscopic the smaller level cells c Developmental the similarities and differences of development in two different species chicken v human 2 Physiology functions of the body a Based on organ system b Looks at processes at cellular level LLinks form amp function together complementarity 3 Necessary Life Functions a Maintain Boundaries different scales Bigger Scale skin between the outside amp inside environment Smaller Scale cell membrane in between b Movement contractibility iSkeletal system has to work with muscles iiSmooth muscle used in the digestive system and labor contractions c Resbonse respond to stimuli inside amp out iRespiratory dictated by stimuli lack of oxygen iiquot ght or ightquot response Adrenal gland releases epinephrine Digestion necessary steps in processing food and nutrients Metabolism anabolic build up catabolic break down Waste disposal getting rid of what we don t need Reproduction innate drive to reproduce Cells are replaced when they die or need to be destroyed h Growth increase size of body structures brain 4 Necessities to survive a Nutrients for energy cell building carbs proteins lipids nucleic acids b Oxygen nal electron acceptor in cellular respiration c Water essential for chemical reactions in hydrolysis Need to maintain uid when kidneys lter blood d Normal Bodv Temperature 985 F37 C maintained with homeostasis for enzymes amp more sensitive to heat There s a lag time with the hypothalamus e Proper Atmospheric Pressure sufficient amount of oxygen delivered to body 5 Homeostasis the ability to maintain function at constant levels maintained by all systems collectively aWhen unbalanced iThere is a change in variable or stimulus change from sensor detects change amp produces internally or externally iii information is sent along afferent pathway to This allows the response to be fast because the brain doesn t have to be the control center The center takes the info amp says how it will respond iv info sent along efferent pathway to muscle gland etc which provides mean for response Effector either enhances or reduces stimulus v effectors feedback to reduce the effect of stimulus amp returns variable to homeostatic level b Feedback i if response reduces the stimulus Example normal glucose level is 90 mg100 mL The stimulus is rising blood glucose level Receptors send info to the pancreas and it tells the alpha cells to produce insulin acting as a hormone signal 3997 Chapter One Intro to Anatomy and Physiology This will help take sugar out of blood and stimulates glycogen formation amp blood glucose falls Opposite beta cells make glucagon storage into glucose for low levels of blood glucose if response enhances stimulus Example Damaged cells in blood vessel wall release chemical to x Platelets move to the site of injury and signal more platelets This accelerates the process and ends with a blood clot 6 Homeostatic Imbalance feedback mechanisms get overwhelmed 7 Organ systems lntegumentary the body s covering skin hair nails Skeletal body s framework arthrology joints Muscular skeletal muscles which produce movement Nervous controls amp integrates processes brain spinal cord nerves Endocrine chemical controls which act through the bloodstream secreted by numerous endocrine glands amp controlled by the pituitary under direction of the hypothalamus f Cardiovascular circulation amp transport within the body heart veins capillaries g Lymphatic aids the cardiovascular system and defends against pathogens lymph vessels nodes tissue h Respiratorv gas exchange which supports metabolism lungs bronchial passages i Digestive takes in nutrients and breaks them down i Urinary excretes waste amp maintains homeostasis of the blood kidneys ureters urinary blood urethra k Reproductive produces offspring testies ovaries etc 8Anatomical Vocabulary a Anatomical position body is erect palms facing forward thumbs are pointing out Right amp left is on the individual and not you Superior cranial toward head or upper Inferior caudal away from head or toward lower body Ventral anterior toward or at the front of the body Dorsal posterior toward the back Medial toward or at the midline Lateral away from the midline h Intermediate between a medial amp lateral structure i Proximal closer to origin of the body part or point of attachment i Distal farther from the origin of a body part k Superficial toward body surface Deep away from the body surface m Planes of the body i MedianMidsaggital divides the body vertically in leftright half 1 Parasaddital if you move the cut to a side ii FrontalCoronal divides into anteriorposterior iii Transverse horizontal divides inferior and superior iv Obligue cutting at an angle This increases surface area n Regions of Body i Axial head neck trunk aphalic ii Appendicular limbs amp extremities iii Thorax sternal axillary mammary thoracic Dance arming Chapter One Intro to Anatomy and Physiology iv Abdomen umbilical inguinal pelvic v Back dorsum lumbar vertebral scapular 9 Body Cavities a Dorsal i Cranial brain ii Vertebralspinal spinal cord b Ventral i Thoracic heart amp lungs 1 Pleural lungs 2 Pericardial heart ii Abdominal stomach intestines spleen liver iii Pelvic urinary bladder reproductive organs rectum 10 Membrane in Body Cavities a Serous serosa thin layer double membrane system of mesothelium and connective tissue The visceral covers the organs The parietal lines the walls of the cavities Pericardial space has serous uid Secretion of uid cushionsprotects the organs i Pericardium heart ii Pleurae lungs iii Peritoneum abdominal cavity 11 Abdominopelvic quadrants RUQ LUQ RLQ LLQ