HDFS 201 chapter 2
HDFS 201 chapter 2 HDFS201010
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Lee on Friday March 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS201010 at University of Delaware taught by Palkovitz,Robin J in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Life Span Development in HDFS at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 03/11/16
HDFS chapter 2 prenatal development the brain develops during the prenatal period w/ 100 billion neurons or nerve cells that handle info processing at the cellular level, moving to specific locations to become connected. brain architecture in two trimesters during prenatal development and third trimester and first two yrs of postnatal involves connectivity and functioning of neurons. Inside the womb, nervous system forms like a long, hollow tube at the back of the embryo. neural tube develops out of the ectoderm, closing about 24 days after conception. Birth detects happen when there’s a failure to the neural tube. anencephaly when the head end of the neural tube fails to close after 24 days spina bifida incomplete development of the spinal cord, causing paralysis of lower limbs. To help prevent, women can take B vitamin folic acid while maternal diabetes and obesity can increase the risk of neural development failure. Prenatal Diagnostic Tests number of tests during pregnancy to observe the fetus development. ultrasound sonography 7 weeks in, noninvasive highfrequency sound waves, echo from the sounds is transformed into a visual representation of the fetus’s inner structure. can detect structural abnormalities, tell its sex, if there are twins fetal MRI can diagnose fetal malformations. powerful magnet and radio waves to generate detailed images of the body’s organs and structures. used after an abnormality has been detected with the ultrasound. MRI obtain a clearer, more detailed image. chorionic villus sampling 10th12th weeks, used to screen for genetic defects & chromosome abnormalities, tiny tissue sample from the placenta is removed and analyzed amniocentesis 15th18th weeks, sample of amniotic fluid from syringe and tested for chromosome/metabolic disorders. later performed the better/accurate but when it’s done earlier, more you can do to fix the problem. maternal blood screening 16th18th weeks identifies pregnancy risk for birth defects like spina bifida and Down syndrome. blood test triple screen measures 3 substances in mother’s blood then ultrasound and if that doesn’t help, amniocentesis is used noninvasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) alternative to chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis. focusing on brain imaging techniques, violating and examining fetal cells in mother’s blood and analysis of cellfree feta DNA in maternal plasma. previously used to test for genes inherited from father that cause cystic fibrosis and Huntington’s disease. fetal sex determination chorionic villus sampling. metaanalysis of studies can detect as early as 7 weeks in. Hazards to Prenatal Development environment can affect the embryo/fetus in many ways general principles a teratogen any agent that can potentially cause a birth defect/negatively alter cognitive and behavioral outcomes. study of this is teratology including drugs, incompatible blood types, environmental pollutants, infectious diseases, nutritional deficiencies, maternal stress, advanced maternal and paternal age. dose greater the dose, greater the effect genetic susceptibility abnormalities linked to the genotype of the mom and genotype of the embryo/fetus. EX. how mother metabolizes a particular drug can influence the effects on the embryo/fetus. vulnerability to a teratogen can depend on the genotype. time of exposure teratogens can do more damage during a specific development period than others. embryonic period tends to be more vulnerable than the fetal period especially with structural defect when organs are forming. and less likely after organogenesis prescription and nonprescription drugs prescription drugs can act as teratogens like antibiotics, antidepressants, and accutane (used or acne) whereas nonprescription drugs can do harm like diet pills and aspirin. psychoactive drugs drugs that act on the nervous system to alter states of consciousness, perceptions, and change moods; caffeine, alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine, marijuana, heroin. caffeine high amounts by pregnant women don’t risk miscarriage, congenital malformations, or growth retardation but possible risks have not been tested probably bc it’d be unethical. alcohol fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) cluster of abnormalities and problems when alcohol is consumed during pregnancy. facial deformities, defective limbs, face, heart, learning problems, below average in intelligence, intellectual disabilities. level of alcohol will not cause FASD but tested that it can cause early pregnancy loss. nicotine cigarettes affect prenatal development, birth, and postnatal development. preterm births, low birth weights, deaths, respiratory problems, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cardiovascular problem. 25% born w/ low weight and may cause ADHD. even exposure to it can increase the risks. cocaine reduced birth weight, length, head circumference, lower arousal, higher excitability, slow reflexes, high rates of aggression and delinquency although environmental factors can enhance or diminish this effect. Most certainly, weight, neurological, medical ,and cognitive deficits can happen methamphetamine a stimulant, speeding up the nervous system. high infant mortality, low birth weight, memory deficit,s and developmental and behavioral problems. less brain activation in certain areas, especially in the frontal lobe. marijuana lower intelligence heroin behavioral difficulties at birth like withdrawal symptoms (tremors, irritability, abnormal crying, disturbed sleep, impaired motor control, attention deficit, problems with withdrawal) incompatible blood types b/t mother and father’s blood. blood type is created by differences in the surface structure of red blood cells. Also determined by Rh positive or negative where positive would show over negative but if the marker is not present, it’d be assumed that it’s negative. If fetus and mother’s aren’t the same Rh, mother’s body can produce antibodies that'll attack the fetus. maternal diseases / infections can cross the placental barrier and cause damage so it’s suggested to get blood test done before pregnancy to see if she is immune. Syphilis (central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract) Herpes (can be detected at delivery and C section to keep the virus from the baby) AIDS (caused by HIV, human immunodeficiency virus that destroys the immune system) Diabetes (high levels of sugar in the blood, fat babies) One maternal nutrition that’s important during prenatal development is folic acid, Bcomplex vitamin that can lower 70% risk of early birth and less likely to have behavioral problems. (orange juice and spinach) emotional states and stress fears, anxieties, negative mood states can affect the fetus w/ longterm consequences w/ emotional and cognitive problems, ADHD, language delay. depression can lead to low birth weight and preterm birth maternal age death is more likely for adolescents’ baby than women 35 and older. it’s likely that the baby will have physical problems, down syndrome, environmental hazards radiation, toxic wastes, chemical pollutants. paternal factors father’s exposure to lead, radiation, certain pesticides, petrochemicals can cause abnormalities in the term that could lead to miscarriage or diseases like childhood cancer. smoking, could lead to leukemia. fathers’ age more than 40 ca cause autism bc increase in random gene mutations in older fathers. but can beneficially help by supporting the mother during pregnancy, lessening stress. Prenatal Care visits to the medical care, screening, treatable diseases, getting educational, social, and nutritional services. birth and the postpartum period The Birth Process stages of birth (1) longest, 1520 contractions, cervix stretch and open up to 10 cm, increased intensity, can last up to 612 hours (2) baby’s head move through the cervix and birth canal, contraction slows, lasting up to 45 min 1 hr. (3) afterbirth placenta, umbilical cord, other membranes are detached and expelled from the uterus. shortest, lasting few mins childbirth setting and attendants most in hospitals, father and birth coach throughout labor and delivery. differing depending on geographical culture. midwives 40% delivers the baby, has decreased over the years doulas caregiver who provides continuous physical, emotional, and educational support before, during , and after childbirth. positive effects. In the US, much lower rate and works as independent service providers hired by parents themselves. methods of childbirth medication analgesia (relieve pain), anesthesia (tranquilizers, barbiturates, narcotics; late firststage labor, blocking consciousness/sensation in the area of the body.epidural block is regional anesthesia that numbs the body from waist down), and oxytocin/pitocin (hormones that stimulate contractions). natural and prepared childbirth no drugs or assist through breathing methods and relaxation techniques. Lamaze Method is prepared childbirth w/ special breathing technique to control pushing and educated with anatomy and physiology. Nonmediated techniques to reduce pain includes effort to reduce stress, waterbirth, massage, acupuncture. waterbirth giving birth in a tub of warm water. making it less stressful for the baby to be born into a similar environment but getting in too soon can cause labor to slow or stop. linked w/ shorter second stage of labor, more practiced in europe. massage prior to and during delivery that helps to reduce pain during labor acupuncture fine needs into specific locations in the body to reduce the pain of childbirth (china) positive effects on labor and delivery Cesarean Delivery if the baby is in a breech position where the butt is the first to emerge, it can cause respiratory problems so the baby must be removed from the uterus through an incision. The Transition From Fetus to Newborn if birth takes too long, it can cause stress for the baby, developing anoxia insufficient supply of oxygen, causing brain damage. Babies can withstand stress with large quantities of adrenaline, noradrenaline, hormones to protect from oxygen deficiency. Umbilical cord is immediately cut, breathes on its own, weighed, cleaned, tests for signs of developmental problems. apgar scale to assess the health of newborns 15 mins after birth, testing heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, body color, reflex irritability done by an obstetrician or nurse giving 0,1,2 on all 5 tests. 5 means developmental difficulties, 3 and lower means emergency, may not make it. Also assesses the newborn’s ability to respond to the stress of delivery and adapt to its new environment. Low Birth Weight and Preterm Infants low birth weight infants less than 5 1/2 pounds. V low < 3, extremely low < 2. preterm infants born three weeks or more before full term so 35 or fewer weeks after conception. small for date infants below normal weight when the length of the pregnancy is considered. less than expected w/ normal length of time in the womb. consequences of low birth weight health and developmental problems. extremely preterm infants less than 28 weeks gestation and very preterm infants 2833 weeks. survival rates have risen but severe brain damage rate has also increased. some have abnormal axon development in their brains and impaired cognitive development at 9 yrs old. more likely to have learning disabilities, ADHD, and breathing problems (asthma), autism nurturing low birth weight and preterm infants. kangaroo care skintoskin contact against bare chest 23 hrs a day. Massage therapy also helps Bonding Bonding connection, physical bond, b/t parents and newborn during the period shortly after birth. The Postpartum Period weeks after childbirth is the postpartum period 6 weeks until mother’s body has readjusted and returned to prepregnant state. physical adjustments physical adjustments after childbirth, may feel great deal of energy or exhausted. fatigue can undermine the new mother’s send of well being and confidence w/ the new life. Main concern is lack of sleep. Mother’s body goes through a sudden and dramatic change in hormone production bc estrogen and progesterone levels drop steeply and remains until ovaries start producing hormones again. emotional and psychological adjustments afterbirth, moods are everywhere “postpartum blues” feeling depressed, anxious, upset. postpartum depression major depressive episode that occur about 4 weeks after, strong feelings of sadness, anxiety, despair, having trouble coping with daily tasks. drugs, therapy, and exercise help. fathers can go through depression too bc of lack of attention, responsibilities, and especially if uneducated about how to take care of a baby.
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