HDFS 201 chapter 3 notes
HDFS 201 chapter 3 notes HDFS201010
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Lee on Friday March 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS201010 at University of Delaware taught by Palkovitz,Robin J in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Life Span Development in HDFS at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 03/11/16
HDFS chapter 3 physical development and biological again Body Growth and Change physically change in shape, what we think, how people think of us, and capable of thinking, doing, and feeling. Patterns of Growth cephalocaudal pattern fastest growth in the human body from top to bottom. Sensory and motor development follows this pattern like babies see before they can control their limbs, use their hands before they can crawl or walk. proximodistal pattern growth sequence that starts at the center of the body and moves towards the extremities. Height and Weight in Infancy and Childhood Infancy first several days, losing 557 lbs, adjusting to sucking, swallowing, digesting, growing rapidly the first month. doubling by 4 months, growing 3/4 inch per month. by yr 2, grows up to 2632 lbs. Early Childhood preschool, slim down as trunks length, body and fat slows, girls having more fatty tissue and boys have more muscle tissue. time when growth pattern begins to vary amongst individuals due to heredity and environmental experiences. physical changes: head and waist circumference, leg length decreasing in relation to body height Puberty Puberty rapid physical maturation w/ hormonal and bodily changes in early adolescence. Sexual Maturation, Height, and Weight male: bigger penis and testicle, straight pubic hair, voice change, ejaculation, curly pubic hair, max growth in height and weight, armpit hair, more detectible voice change, facial hair. females breasts, wider hips, armpit hair, height. menarche girl’s first menstruation late in the pubertal cycle, highly irregular. weight gain is a sign for puberty. approx. 2 yrs earlier than males. Hormonal Changes. hormones are chemical substances secreted by the endocrine glands (interacting with hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads) and carried through the body by the bloodstream. hypothalamus in the brain involved in eating and sexual behavior pituitary gland endocrine gland controlling growth and regulating other glands like gonads testes in males, ovaries in females pituitary gland sends a signal gonadotropins stimulating the testes/ovaries to the appropriate gland to manufacture hormones that changes the production of sperm/eggs. pituitary gland works with the hypothalamus to detect the optimal level of hormones. this gland also releases hormones that lead directly to growth and skeletal maturation by interacting with thyroid gland at the base of the throat testosterone in boys develop genitals, height, voice change (eightfold) estradiol in girls in developing breasts, uterine, skeletal (twofold) Timing and Variations in the Puberty bc of improved nutrition and health and rate of decline in age of onset of puberty has slowed over the last several decade, it’s been found that puberty is still occurring earlier in girls and boys. basic genetic program for puberty is wired into the species:nutrition, health, family stress, environmental factors Psychological Accompaniments of Puberty. Body Image constant change influences their dissatisfaction. gender differences their perceptions of their bodies. negative at first but gradually becoming positive. hard especially bc increased fat for girls. early and late maturation depending on when the body goes through the rapid change, people perceive themselves differently. early maturing (that tends to led to a higher chance of testicular cancer) boys perceive themselves in a positive light but not so similarly for girls. Early Adulthood subtle physical changes, peak functioning of the body’s joins (less elastic), muscle tone and strength (more aches), sagging chins and protruding abdomens. Middle Adulthood gradual physical changes, depends on the individual but genetic makeup and lifestyle plays an important role in appearance of chronic diseases. Physical Appearance around 40/50s. lose height bc bone loss in the vertebrae, gain weight. Signs of aging like wrinkle, sad, loss of fat and collagen in tissues, pigmentation in the skin (spots), decline in melanin production. Actions like surgery, dyeing hair, wigs, weight reduction programs, exercise regimens, doses of vitamins are common. Strength, Joints, and Bones sarcopenia agerelated loss of lean muscle mass and strength; back and legs. Obesity is a risk factor. bone density occurs around mid/late 30s but speeds back up during the 50s. women’s bone loss is 2x Cardiovascular System disease related to cardiovascular increases in middle age. level of cholesterol in the blood increases LDL and HDL (low/high density lipoprotein) referring to “bad” cholesterol for Low and “good” for High. Regular exercise and health eating habits can help Blood pressure rises. High BP (hypertension) linked to increased rate of mortality. metabolic syndrome caused by hypertension can lead to diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Lungs little change in capacity but proteins in the lung tissue become less elastic so stiffens the chest wall, shuttle oxygen in blood through the veins. Sexuality. Climacteric midlife transition when fertility declines. Menopause middle age, women has not had a menstrual period for a year usually around the age of 52. less production of estrogen by the ovaries resulting in hot flashes, nausea, fatigue, rapid heartbeat. earlier the period, later the menopause. Late Adulthood increased risk of physical disability, rates of decline in functioning. change in physical appearance and cardiovascular system Physical Appearance. more pronounced in changed that occur in middle adulthood. weight drop, spots, wrinkles, lose muscle Circulatory System. having hypertension, stroke, kidney disease, heart attack, illness, obesity, stress ,stiffening of blood vessels, lack of exercise , various drugs, healthy diet, and exercise can reduce the risks The Brain The Neuroconstructivist View Brain is “wired” from the genes and its plasticity and development depends on the context (environment). based on experiences to determine how the connections are made. neurons grow and travel distance to shape the brain’s neural connections. neuroconstructivist view includes biological processes (genes), environmental experiences, plasticity and context dependent, brain development and cognitive development is closely linked; focusing on epigenetic view Brain Physiology neurons are nerve cells that handle info processing Structure and Function forebrain is the top part of the brain, that is split into two hemispheres. outer layer of cells is the cerebral cortex that covers like a thin cap. responsible for 80% of the brain’s volume and its responsibility is perception, thinking, language, and others Each hemisphere has four lobes that work together for different primary functions frontal lobes voluntary movement, thinking, personality, emotion, memory, sustained attention, intentionality/purpose occipital lobes vision temporal lobes hearing, language processing, memory parietal lobes registering spatial location, focusing attention, maintaining motor control Underneath the cortex, there’s the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, amygdala (emotions), hippocampus (memory and emotion) Neurons process info. has axons (sends electrical signals away from the central part of the neuron) to synapses where neurotransmitters (chemical substances) to communicate with dendrites, passing the signals on. Axons covered in myelin sheath, developed through myelination helps impulses travel faster along the axon, increasing speed and efficiency. it provides energy to neurons and facilitates communication. neurons in L Hemi deals with speech, grammar (logic thinkers) and R Hemi handles humor, metaphors (creative thinking). Each side having a specific responsibility is called lateralization. reading or performing music involved both! Infancy shaken baby syndrome swelling and hemorrhaging Early Experience and the Brain deprived, unresponsive, unstimulating environments can influence the brain development. The effects can be reversible. Changing Neurons Birth to second year involves myeline sheath and connections b/t dendrites. increase in dendrites and synapses, making more connections. Myelination first 6 months and auditory myelination up to 45 yrs. some aspects continuing till adulthood, mostly changing in the frontal lobes during adolescence Changing Structures frontal lobe is immature at birth. neurons become myelinated & interconnected first year, enabling regulation of their physiological (sleep) and control over their reflexes. Cognitive skills require deliberate thinking. 2 months, motor control, 4 months neural connection for depth perception, 12 months, speech being able to produce words Childhood brain and nervous system continues to grow, plan actions, attend to stimuli more effectively, make strides in language development. brain and head grows rapidly. increases from myelination and number and size of dendrites, which helps with maturation; continues until middle/late adulthood. growth during childhood is not as rigorously as infancy but anatomical changes is dramatic from 315; hierarchically organized and develops from the bottom up, sensory areas before the prefrontal cortex. cognitive control involves flexible and effective control in attention, reducing interfering thoughts, inhibiting motor actions, and switching between competing choices Adolescence brain’s still growing… connects b/t neurons bemuse “pruned” as they get older meaning fewer, more selective, effective neuronal connections and activities choose to engage in or not influence which neural connections will be strengthened/disappear. corpus callosum large bundle of axon fibers that connects L & R hemispheres, thickening with age, developing prefrontal cortex highest level of frontal lobes involved in resonsing, decision making, self control. amygdala brain’s limbic system is responsible for emotions Changes in the Adolescent Brain increase in myelination, meaning more connectivity and integration of brain regions, strengthening emotional control. More neurotransmitter dopamine, more reward seeking and risk taking, more negative outcomes but new experiences and challenges help to learn about aspects of the world. Biological changes include thickening of the prefrontal cortex and more brain connections that’ll enable on to resist peer pressure, decision making skills. developmental social neuroscience has to do with connections b/t development, the brain, and socioemotional processes. although capable of strong emotions. prefrontal cortex hasn’t fully developed to a point where they can control passions. Adulthood and Aging Shrinking, Slowing Brain lose 510% bt the age of 2090. volume decreases, frontal lobes and hippocampus due to shrinkage of neurons, lower numbers of synapses, reduced length of axons. prefrontal cortex shrinks, affecting working memory and cognitive activities. slower function in the brain and spinal cord but accelerates in late adulthood as physical coordination and intellectual performance is also affected. can impair performance of older adults on intelligence tests and cognitive tasks when timed. reduced synaptic functioning and production of neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, dopamine, gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA)) leading to Alzheimer disease. loss of dopamine could lead to loss of motor control. GABA helps with presicesness The Adapting Brain remarkable repair capability. activities are linked to brain’s development. Exercise help w/ greater volume in the hippocampus that translates into better memory. neurogenesis generation of new neurons occur in lower mammalian species like mice. exercise, enriched, complex environment generate new brain cells in mice & humans and stress reduces the cell’s survival. Dendritic growth in human adults 4070s may compensate for the possible loss of neurons through the 70s. lack of dendritic growth could be from lack of environmental stimulation and activity. decrease in lateralization may reflect older age, explaining how younger people have higher intercorrelations of performance on cognitive tasks. Sleep restores, replenishes, rebuilds the brain and body. gives neurons that are active while we are awake a chance tons shut down and repair Infancy The Sleep/Wake Cycle sleeping 1617 hrs a day, number decreasing as we age. infants change their sleeping routine but by 1 month, most sleep longer at night. Problem: nighttime waking from difficulty going to sleep and staying asleep at night. maternal depressing during pregnancy, early intro of solid foods, TV viewing, childcare attendance may cause shorter duration of infant sleep. REM Sleep eyes flutter beneath closed lids. adulthood 1/5 of sleep is REM sleep, appearing one hr after nonREM sleep. most infants REM sleep. Shared Sleeping baby and mother sleeping together promotes breast feeding, respond quicker to baby’s cries, detect breathing pauses. controversial issue. might lead to sudden infant death syndrome, sleeping mother rolling over her baby SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome) infants stop breathing and die without an apparent cause. sleeping on their backs may help to reduce the risk. Childhood young children 1113 hrs. 1st5th graders 1011 hrs. without adequate sleep, may result in depressive symptoms, problems at school, father in poor health, alcohol problems, attention problems, emotional security Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood 8 or more hrs on a school night. decreasing as they get older. too little sleep could result in delinquency, less effective attention. with age, shifts to taking naps bc of hormone melatonin, brain’s pineal gland in preparing the body for sleep. Adulthood and Aging chronic sleep deprivation may contribute to cardiovascular disease and shortened life span, cognitive and motor impairment that risk motor vehicle crashes and workrelated accidents. frequent wakeful periods and less deepest type of sleep. feeling less rested in the morning, lean towards drugs. goes to bed earlier and earlier in the morning w/ naps in the afternoon. sleep problems of aging adults are associated with health problems Longevity and Biological Aging Life Expectancy and Life Span most die before 65. life span has remained unchanged since the beginning of time and is the upper boundary of life, max number of years one can live from 120 to 125 yrs. Life expectancy is the number of years that the average person born in a particular year will probably live. US does better than other countries but also varies w/ ethnic groups w/ women reaching 80 yrs and men 75 yrs. women>men bc social factors like health attitudes, habits, lifestyles, occupation. Sex difference in longevity bc women have more resistance to infections and degenerative diseases. X chromosome can produce more antibodies to fight off disease. Centenarians older than 100 yrs. increasing 7% each year. most are women. Biological Theories of Aging Evolutionary Theory evolutionary selection decrease with age. natural selection has not eliminated many harmful conditions and nonadaptive characteristics in older adults bc it’s linked to reproductive fitness that’s only present in the early adulthood. Cellular Clock Theory states that cells can divide a max of 7580 times as we age and our cells become less capable of diving. each time a cell divides, the telomeres become shorter and shorter, to a point where they can’t divide anymore but injecting telomerase can extend the life of the cells FreeRadical Theory people age b/c cells metabolize energy, byproducts inside unstable oxygen molecules known as free radicals which ricochet around the cells, damaging DNA and cellular structures. Mitochondrial Theory tiny bodies within cells that supply energy for function, growth, and repair may play a part in aging in that decay of mitochondria may occur due to oxidative damage and loss of critical micronutrients by the cell. Hormonal Stress Theory aging in the body’s hormonal system can lower resistance to stress and increase the likelihood of disease. external challenges may alter internal physiological processes. allostasis is the process of adaptation and adjustment. When dealing with stress, the body respond by releasing certain hormones., which increases risks for diseases. It emphasizes a decline in the immune system functioning with aging.
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