Week Four Dates
Week Four Dates ZOO364
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by kylie1993 on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ZOO364 at North Dakota State University taught by Gary Clambey in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see General Ecology in Science at North Dakota State University.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
200 364 General Ecology Week Four Notes February 9 2015 Human quotArtificialquot selection unintended evolution domesticationbreed between members of same species 3 genetic engineeringgenetic changes in populations this can cross between different species 4 diminishing diversity and driving species to extinction N Evoution can occur rapidly evoution involves tradeoffs Traits bring both benefits and costs EX female deer that reproduced had a higher death rate compared to deer that did not reproduce emergence of one or more new species from an ancestry lineage Some cases they replace species that are extinct it results when one or more genetic isolating mechanisms barriers from between populations prezygotic isolating mechanisms tempora different times of breeding ecologica live in different places behavioral when the male isn t doing what the female likes mechanica reproductive organs do not match gametic can reproduce but no zygote productionformation postzygotic isolating mechanisms hybrid invaliability does not germinate too much genetic differences hybrid sterility mules and horses offspring that are produced are sterile hybrid breakdown some degree of fertilitiy over time the success of reproduction diminishes and eventually they die out Allopatric speciation populations are geographically separated from each other barrier or selective pressure Parapatric speciation new species arrive at margins wide spread species Sympatric speciation same area all along occurs when ranges overlap and they still separate This is common in plants not so much in animals Polyploidization duplicating the number of chromosomes high in plants Coevolution evolution of two interacting species where each affects the other EX predator and prey predators selecting on prey arms race pathogen and host 2 species that are in association with eachother if one changes then the pressure is put on the other model and mimic EXorchid and praying mantis looking like it to surprise prey The dynamic earth and its evolutionary history EX stromata earth sediment that holds fossils fossil evidence of multicellular organisms Cambrian explosion10 million years shows emerging organisms evidence that amphibians gave rise to tetrapods now on terrestrial biome The ecological theater and the evolutionary play by George G and Evelyn Hutchinson Life history An evolutionary outcome with an ecological context morphological changes 1 Life Historyset events in the life of an organism from its inception to its death including timing sequence of events and the duration of those events growth rate and time to maturation mature reproductive output Jongev y 2 Life history theorythe life history pattern for a species is an evolutionary product shaped by genetic capacities and selective patternsfactors 3 Life history strategythe overall pattern of life history events for a species Strategy is an established but poorly chosen term because it suggests conscious activity rather than an evolutionary outcome Species cannot think and change themselves on purposecommand 4 Principle of allocation an organism allocates resources to three fundamental processes growth maitenance survival reproduction An organism has a limited set of resources to be utilized for those functions and there are tradeoffs benefits and costs EX greater investment in one reduces resources for the other functions February 18 2015 Biological Evolution a population multi generational process Life History evolutionary product and important to understanding populations Behavior integral aspect of both indivduals and animal populations Biological Populations all the members of one species in one common area and time Characteristicspatterns of characteristics geographic rangewhat establishes the barriersgrounds size or density dispersion pattern of individuals 1 individuals dispersed at random 2 clumping of individuals due to social or only area that they can survive 3 regularsystematic patternfor example orchards and rows will have systematic setup popuation age structure sexgender ratio genetic diversityimportant because infers adaptability socia structureranging from parentoffspring together as family or seasonal gathering demographic featuresrates of reproduction mortality emigration immigration life expectancy survivorship pattern Dynamicswhat do we see past patterns of characteristics and future factors affecting population dynamics extrinsic patterns external factors other species weather patterns intrinsic patterns demographic characteristics of species itself birth rates density dependent or independent dependentpopuation grows then they slow down a population as it grows related to the density independentin affect whether many or few individuals EX wildfires dynamic patternschange in populations or individual members exponentia or geometric growth exponentiallogistic sigmoidal growthgrowth and then levels out cycic patterns irreguar episodic increases and decreases random environmental factors stabiityrelative decline and extirpation wiped out extinct geometricpopuation is steady growth fixed interval Analysishow do we analyze them Size etc reasons censusing and sampling attempt to tally every member of population EX working with endangered species going into population and checking areas of population because of large population Haploidiploid females in a honeybee hive are all diploid and males are all haploid Samplingtypes of samplingplacement where and timing when of a sample
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