CONFLICT ANALYSIS Week 5 Notes
CONFLICT ANALYSIS Week 5 Notes POL 325
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah McCauley on Friday March 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POL 325 at Pace University - New York taught by Nikolas Katsimpras in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Conflict Analysis in Political Science at Pace University - New York.
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Date Created: 03/11/16
Conflict Analysis Week 3 03/09/2016 ▯ CLASS NOTES 2/16/16 ▯ ▯ Why are we interested (the US) in the Middle East? ▯ ▯ Social, Economic, Political reasons vary and are intensely intertwined ▯ ▯ Ties with Capitalism, allies, interests and wants/needs of the US shows that there is no clear cut answer to the questions we have in Political Science. Different theories and perspectives allow for biases and various points of world views and influence different decisions that are made globally versus what is initially right. ▯ ▯ Main interest lies in supplier of gas with US and Middle East but this is only one of the major pulls when it comes to decision making. ▯ ▯ Important to keep in mind how the system works here in order to look at the analysis of conflict. Interest groups are very influential and stakeholders, congress members etc. ▯ ▯ Q: How do we research and write ethically about conflict? ▯ ▯ When researching conflict there are a few things to keep in mind: ▯ ▯ When reporting back some of our assumptions get in the way. A large part of conflict comes from personal experience and hearing/reading something that is different than your own story and creates juxtaposition. ▯ ▯ EX: Being within a conflict zone and having an outside source analyzing your current situation with incorrect or different facts that have biases, assumptions, perspectives, and implications. This can instigate conflict. ▯ ▯ IN CLASS EXERSIZE: ▯ Imagine being dropped into a conflict zone (Burma refugee camp) and interviewing people about conflict, and their experiences in development. Come up with 35 questions on what they are experiences? And one question you would ask a soldier? ▯ ▯ What implications would be made? Emotional responses from refugees, soldiers there to protect or to detain? Opinionated views in the midst of conflict, pressure upon you as a third party to use the information and stories. ▯ ▯ First thing: How you are being perceived? This is important because with your presence you are asking questions and making an impact. Ground experience, perception is important because we use association and assumption to fill in the gaps we do not know and that ground experience helps eliminate that. ▯ ▯ Your information is important because it influences you but also the people who provided you with information because their word is out there as well. ▯ ▯ Use of language is incredibly important how you can influence things on the ground. Certain words can instigate conflict. Try to look at the unintended consequences of your presences. And because of hyper connectivity that does not always mean we have to be on the ground. Anything published online for example on Pace’s University website that you wrote, someone could see that and get upset only to see that Pace has a department funded by State. Therefore it could be assumed that the State funded your article. ▯ ▯ You become part of the system and become a part of it versus just observing. ▯ ▯ We forget how people see us and how we are being perceived is important. Ask yourself “could my actions have any unintended harm?” ▯ ▯ “Primum non nocere”First, do not do harm ▯ ▯ In conflict there are: ▯ Position ▯ ▯ Interest ▯ ▯ Need ▯ ▯ Going from position to need is expanding the pie. Difference of fixed pie (slices) and expanding the pie of the stakeholders there is more room for negotiation. ▯ ▯ How can we address the needs of the stake holders in conflict analysis? How do we engage stake holders? Who are stake holders where did they come from? We get this information with mapping. ▯ ▯ Approaching conflict system and who are the stakeholders, what are their needs, what are their interests, and what are the events? You are studying conflict but you cannot bring up the topic of conflict. How? ▯ ▯ Conflict mapping. This allows for us to engage stake holders and understand more about them while they also understand more about themselves. ▯ ▯ What does peace mean to you? What does justice mean to you? ▯ ▯ Strategy: ▯ Utilizing instruments of power (political, diplomatic, economic, military, informational) to achieve political goals in relation with stakeholders and fellow actors either in cooperation or in competition with other actors pursing their own objectives. ▯ ▯ Sometimes they can be both cooperative and competitive at the same time. Has to do with context. Sometimes actors can be cooperative for their own benefit which in turn had different goals than that of fellow actors. In the long run this manipulation of cooperation could be for competitive purposes. ▯ ▯ HOW POWER OBJECTIVE CONTROL ▯ ▯ Defining strategy: set to anticipate different scenarios and asses scenarios for strong strategy ▯ ▯ Internal and external environment Asses external environment to maneuver internal environment to adapt to specific situations ▯ ▯ Policy Policy is very specific values and define direction and orientations of strategies. Policy is based on frame of human rights. ▯ ▯ Strategy is hierarchical, comprehensive (approach situations where you don’t miss out on important parts aka chart) inclusive: participatory process which perceptions all play into strategy. Greatest limitation is how we work together and understand how complex problems work and you need participatory action to do that. ▯ ▯ Difference between strategy and tactic? ▯ ▯ Tactics Moving pieces or parts ▯ Operational art Combination of these pieces. Need creativity and innovation ▯ Strategy – Combination of combinations ▯ ▯ ▯ Art of tactics: ▯ #1. Be able to utilize creativity and flexibility and tools to adapt to whatever you will encounter. ▯ #2. Invest in people who are able to make decisions under conditions of uncertainty in a time constrained environment ▯ #3. Understanding human dimensionhow to differentiate actual people on the ground versus what ideas/problems will be encountered during training and in classroom. KNOW YOUR PEOPLE. “Not everyone is suitable for everything” ▯ #4. Risk reduction you need quality information and how much intelligence do you have about the enemy. How can you understand risk if you do not know what is happening? ▯ ▯ LESS INFORMATION/INTELLIGENCE MORE o Result in UNCERTAINTY RISK TO FORCE LESS LESS ▯ MORE MORE ▯ ▯ ▯ #5. Time and Cost ▯ Cost benefit: Time, resources, actual impact and what is actually worth it. ▯ EX: Pyrrhic Victory: Sometimes, success can kill ▯ ▯ #6. Controlling the Narrative ▯ How narrative is placed in strategy to set agenda ▯ Use of lies to knowingly shape narrative ▯ ▯ ▯ Specific rules that justify engagement in tactics often manipulated ▯ EX: Justifying engaged fire on photojournalist ▯ ▯ Design Thinking: ▯ Prioritize and how you pick what is important ▯ ▯ Symbolic moments vs. physical moments of strategy and use of tactics ▯ EX: Camping out in front of banks to protest –symbolic act, physically camping out in front of bank does not enact physical change but represents symbolic tactics. ▯ ▯ You are trying to achieve your goal but also prevent their tactics with your own. ▯ ▯ Comprehensive coordination ▯ ▯ IN CLASS STRATEGY EXAMPLE: ▯ ▯ How can we take these important (Issues) and make them easier to tackle? ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ “LUXURY ITEMS” “STRATEGIC ISSUES” ▯ Difficult but can be of less importance Important but how can we make these easier? ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ “LOW HANGING FRUIT” “HIGH RETURN INVESTMENT” ▯ ▯ These are easy for marketing and ▯ create momentum for the movement. These are important but relatively easy ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ DIFFICULTY IMPORTANCE ▯ ▯ ▯ DIVE INTO COMPLEXITY – Do this in a group of people to help figure out which issues are long term and short term realistic or unrealistic goals. ▯ ▯ Balance Key Objectives: They influence everyone in the room which can get out of hand. Allows for prioritizing issues, aspects of issue, and what to focus on = allows for stronger strategy. ▯ ▯ Perception can be limited by others personal perspective. ▯ ▯ Key part of strategy using perspective to better your strategy without negatively impacting it. ▯