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by: Imani Hauck


Imani Hauck
GPA 3.55


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Class Notes
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Imani Hauck on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to THE 2000 at University of Florida taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see /class/206610/the-2000-university-of-florida in Theatre at University of Florida.


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Date Created: 09/18/15
Enterobacteriaceae Small gram negative rods motile with peritrichous agella or non motile faculative bacteria that ferment glucose with acid gas The group includes Soil water inhibitants Normal intestinal inhabitants Intestinal pathogens Enterobacteriaceae diseases Gastroenteritis mild and severe Septicernia Enteric fevers Pneumonia Urinary tract infections They can be community or hospital acquired Classi cation Biochemical tests sugar fermentations decarboxylation of amino acids production of metabolic endproducts indole HZS are used to determine species Antigenic characteristics 0 somatic H agella K capsule Determinants of pathogenicity Three major determinants of pathogenicity have been described 1 Endotoxin lipid A 2 Enterotoxins and cytotoxins 3 Invasiveness ie penetration of the mucosal wall of the intestines Isolation detection 1 Extraintestinal samples blood cultures woun s sputum Blood agar and a differential media MacConkey agar II Intestinal samples nnchment followed by plating on selective and differential media Escherichia coli E coli produces several adhesins that permit it to remain attached to cells in the intestinal and urinary tract type 1 pili colonization factors I and II K88 Ag Toxins Heat labile LT I and 11 Heat stable STa and STb Shigalike toxins SLT I and II Hemolysin UrinaIy tract infections A Community acquired B Hospital acquired Exchenchta call 57 Excheuchta call 39 Icebmttapnemama 13 Prateux mmzblltx 18 Proteus mlmblllx 8 Pxeudamamzx 17 aemganam Primary pathogens in 105 elderly patients has 39 alized for urosepsis Palhngen Number39 L Itihmr lu I m I 1 Mm Ir VHNAUHHquotWUHWU1413i levim pm i gt I mictu WHJI39Irli i l curulnnumunveilw m Pathogens in complicated cystitis Women alder than 65 Pmleus mrrab r s Escnelicma can Gastroenteritis Several major groups of E coli have been recognize EPEC 7 Enteropathogenic EIEC 7 Enteroinvasive EAEC 7 Enteroaggregative DAEC 7 Difuse aggregative Two groups will be considered 7 ETEC Enterotoxigenic and EHEC Enterohemorrhagic These groups differ in the plasmids carried the toxins produced adhesive factors and clinical syndromes Enterotoxigenic E coli ETEC Intestinal disease characterized by nausea vomiting and watery di hea Produce two types oftoxins LT I and II and ST a and b LT toxins in uence the activity of adenyl cyclase39 ST toxins in uence the activity of guanyl cyclase E Adenyl cyclase RP Regulatory protein ATP CAMP EVRPVGTP Active form GTP GTP RP Inactive form ADP 7 Rib ose EVRPVGTP gt EVRPVGTP cholera wxm Active stable form A1 fragment r ions by cells tract increases water in the intestinal tract and produces a watery diarrhea The LT toxin is similar to the cholera toxin antigenically related sarne cellular receptors same mechanism 1 of action and disease symp orns Enterohemorrhagic E coli EHEC May cause mild uncomplicated dianhea tmay 39 colitis with sevel e abdominal pain and bloody dianhea Severe dianhea is caused by Shzga like toxin an AB type toxin that disrupts protein synthesis in eucaryotic cells The most seiious result of infection is hemolytic uremic syndrome HUS Glomzmlar mdothczzoz cells may 72 mfcctcd and destroyed can be fatal Younger children under 5 ate more susceptible Several types of bacteria and several strains o ofE all can cause HUS but E 5 ll 0157H7 is the most common cause mm 1 ruwnmua n inuimmio out wmmllnmn mumpsquot s utiltuu suuui Esclvrlclfa coll ovsmr 3324993 Shigella spp Shigella spp Are usually transmitted by the ecaloral route Humans are the source of the bacteria The infectious dose is low N200 bacteria Intestinal disease is frequently severe with bloody mucoid diarrhea and fever The disease is usually localized to the intestines but septicemia and more serious disease can occur Shigella spp disease Bacteria enter the small intestine multiply and travel to the terminal ileum and colon Bacteria attach to and invade the M microfold cels of the Peyer s patches Shigella can escape from the vacuoles and multiply in the cytoplasm Cell to cell spread of bacteria in the epithelial cells Toxin Shigella dysenteriae produces an exotoxin The toxin is an AB type Five B units are involved in binding to a host glycolipid One A unit is enzymatically active it cleaves the 28S rRNA in the 608 subunit Protein synthesis is stopped Disease 39 Incubation period of 1 3 days 39 Initial pro ise Watery diarrhea 39 Later lower abdominal cramps 39 Diarrhea containing pus and blood indicating infection of the colonic mucosa Shigella spp septicemia Condition Percent With Percent septicemia Acute renal 26 failure Death 42 16 patients lt lyr Salmonella spp can be found in many species of animals Th an cause avanety of diseases in humans including Gastroenteritis Septicemia Enteric fever 7 A l 4 a I 4 LA 1 i an Salmonella spp Classi cation Classi cation of the genus by biochemical tests Classi cation within the genus on the basis I nS Each serotype has been given a species name many are based on the location of isolation Salmonella Miami 3 montzvldzo e gt2000 species are probably only one Salmonella zntzrlm Phase variation Salmonella H antigens can exist in one of two phases H1 or H2 Gene Product Hl Phase 1 Ag H2 Phase 2 Ag plus an inhibitor ole A invertase phase changes at a rate of approximately 1104 cell divisions my a m N c D m 0H H2 on mumInc m H2 pramclnr m wamaxat l 0 v n Irzaolli Nu my mum m ivngellun 208 AEROBIC BACTERIA Tm 20 Abbrtln39nlcd anugmi Arllema or Sa39mnnlHn39 Alumni blmuh Snecinnnduwlypk Group Onnxlnm S tnll n39tidis hunch PamtyphxrA A 121 u a h 12 m a h 2 J 3 IA 1 Z snr Swnley a a 12 DLIgtnvwnvn7HHd B d Disease Gastroenteritjs thi an milolest f0 Nonbloody s is the most common r of Salmonella disease olianhea vomiting nausea are common fever and abdominal cramps occur Usually selflimiting treatment for ptoms but not antibiotic therapy Transmission Transmission mainly through food and water oral fecal route Sources ofinfection Humans inapparent infections convalescent and carriers Animals poultry eggs other animal sources Food Dangers of Foul Fowl Cooks beware your dinner may harbor a new threat in l l39Y n lust lnu rucluvmlllloll dilmmliiiiuulllnluglltl m ii Salmonella Cases in Midwest Are Linked to Raw Tomatoes llimimws is wnlvillil l lll inl quotW quotW in on im it no llli lllliHli rm mumML mat Ivih ml Allin1mm ll lull letle in lmir kn 39ilmuuslvm mcs m lht llilkl mun Milal llktll Hi lll li i VJlthlllfllllS lLlL WLii lillil i Allli M lquot H l in lllmllh n mmisnlinnnvlinnln nil ml39 L luthii y litmus liziisiini EXtraintestinal Septicemia this can be caused by all Salmonzlla spp L by s cholzmzsuls 39 hock leltinn in the kiolneys and lungs Gastrointestinal symptomsmay be minimal Pediatric and geriatric patients are at greater risk than the general population Enteric fever Typhoidfever casused by Salmonzlla y m is the most sevel e exam le of an entenc fever othei strains may produce less severe symptoms s lyplzl is primarily a human disease The incidence oftyphoid fever has been decli ing as the incidence of othei n Salmonella disease has been increasing Stages in the disease s lyplzl invades the intestinal tiact s include constipation headache and general symptoms Ra en39a all parts of the body Bacteria are phagocytosized but not killed intracellular multiplication occurs The bacteria reenter the blood stream prolonged severe septicemia may result fever shock from endotoxin The bacteria may also reenter the intestinal tract causing diarrhea and may infect the gall bladder A severe frequently fatal disease results Results of infection Improvement and recovery usually occur especially with antibiotic therapy Complications such as severe intestinal bleeding may result Symptoms may recede but bacteria persist This carrier state usually occurs with infection of the gall bladder Typhoid Mary Mary Mallon 7 a cook for a family on Long Island when typhoid fever broke out in the family Investigators found that typhoid fever had occurred in six out of eight households where she had worked as a cook She resisted attempts to get samples from her she was forcibly quarantined on an island o r several years After many appeals she was allovvedto work doing laundry After being under surveillance she disappeared After several doctors nurses and patients at the sloan Maternity Hospital developed typhoid fever she was identi ed as a cook Treatment Gastroenteritis treatment of symptoms usually an 39 iotics are not required Carriers ampicillin can be used to eliminate the carrier state Entenc fevers septicemia aggressive n in nhr chloramphenicol is used VPHolD FEVER CHLORAMPNENICOL I A 7 11 M 39 1 Mil T treated with i t 1 c a L our antaantlammatury m l l men mob a t mmwi u may a lion r Mu iiiiiiililliii H in 11 a a 5 w 0 a TYPHOID FEV Control s typhl control of caniers elimination of transmission by water and food other Salmonella spp stopping transmission ofbacteria from animals to humans s typhl antio anol antiVi antibodies are r with killed bacten39a Klebsiella pneumoniae Found in the intestinal tract of animals present in environmental sa s mp e K pnzumomae causes urinary tract infections It also causes 1 to 5 ofthe cases of pneumonia in the US Patients are often adult males who are alcoholic or oliabetic Capsules are a major virulence factor Proteus spp Proteus spp are can cause urinary tract 39 i ns They produce urease gt ammonia higher pH a The high pH favors growth of Protzux spp and precipitates calcium and magnesium s ts making t e symptoms more severe Serratia marcescens 39 S quot1075255an was used to demonstrate transmission ofbacteria by aerosols Distribution by transportation Distribution by sea breezes s marczsczns is an opportunistic pathogen than can cause severe endocaroiitis Ynusual Bacteria Caused nquoteclions in Miami Hospital wwimuetmmn WWW mt WWW i H W m manhuntmyta h It i 39 b m5 M Immlnmrlmumllul quotquotquotuquotquot quot39 mm m ull lshmvylauwmn M mu m n in mm D W WW it N is m a Hogan m in r Mun r NW WinnMin n m or min in bmera H mm twin mm on m t innummtmiwr t n in mi Minn numb A technician operating a heartlung machine touched the floor and picked up some disinfectant on his hands while hooking up some of the ma chine s tubingl A tiny amount of disin fectant then jumped into the machine through a juncture in the tubing Yersinia pestis Y pest 5 the enologrc agent of plague Bubomc plague Black Death It has caused major eprdernrcs 14 ofthe populauon of Europe dxed 1n the 14th century Currently 1t 5 endernrc In many parts ofthe world rncludrng the U s Southwest 11 wrld rodent cornmuxutles Transmission erd rodent e gt ea erd rodent e eegt ea 1n eas below 27C the bactena produce coagulase Tlus clots blood blocks the ea has trouble feeding and wrll brte rnore hosts dnfferent hosts 1t 5 less dnscnrnrnanng Clinical forms of Y pestis disease Bubonic Regional lymph nodes become infected usually in the groin Buboes enlarged tender lymph nodes form39 fever pain in lim 5 Septicemic occurs if the infection is not contained in the regional lymph nodes spread to liver lungs Pneumonic Infection of the lun 5 further spread by aerosols rapid spread high fatality rate Virulence factors Response related to location In eas coagulase to increase biting low temperature In the blood stream antiphagocytic Fraction 1 antigen high temperature In macrophages expression of outer membrane proteins high temperature low calcium Virulence factors YopH 7 secreted upon contact with phagocytic cells proteins involved in phagocytosis are dephosphorylated YopE 7 disrupt actin laments producing cytotoxicity YopJP 7 initiate apoptosis in macrophages Protease 7 degrades complement components C3b and C5a Treatment control be re urr d Treatment with penicillin is not effective treatment with other antibiotics is effective Diagnosis may be dif cult State labs may q e Immunization with killed bacteria provided protection against bubonic plague Control of rodents is important 20


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