PLANT BREEDING AGR 4321
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This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elaina Gorczany on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AGR 4321 at University of Florida taught by Kenneth Quesenberry in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/206614/agr-4321-university-of-florida in Agricultural & Resource Econ at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
A Terminology Euploidy Aneuploidy Genome Haploid n 1 2 3 4 Monoploidx 5 s Somaticchromosomenumber 7 Polyploidy B Induction of Polyploids 1 Unreduced gametes 2 Arti cial induction a Methods to induce b Artificial autoploids c Arti cial alloploids a Figure515eper StPoehlman C Characteristics and breeding behavior of polyploids Increase in possible different genotypes next slide 2 Dominance and recessiveness may break down 3 Autopolyploids and plant breeding 4 Bridging ploidy levels between and within species 5 Allopolyploids and plant breeding AAAA 4 quadraplex AAAa triplex duplex simplex Aaaa Aaaa 4 nulliplex D Aneuploidy and Plant Breeding 1 Nullisomic 2 Monosomic 3 Trisomic 4 Tetrasomic E Haploidy and plant breeding 1 Uses of haploids 2 Methods to induce haploids F Unreduced gametes and plant breeding Uses Sexual polyploidization maximum heterosis Wide hybrids to introgress traits N How to identify 2n gamete producers IX Biotechnology and Plant Breeding Sleper amp Poehlman Ch8 AGR 43215321 Plant Breeding Fall 2008 KH Quesenberry What is Biotechnology Genetic modification of living organisms Targeted genetic manipulations Introduction of new genetic material from related species by sexual means Introduction of foreign genetic material from unrelated species by transformation Biotech Means of Crop Improvement Identification of DNA markers associated with desirable traits marker assisted selection Pinpoint location of desirable traits on plant genomes using molecular markers Cloning of desirable genes Insertion of desirable novel genes from various species into unrelated species to produce new cultivars Important Steps Necessary for Molecular Biology Applications in Plant Breeding A Plant cell and tissue culture techniques amp applications 1 Tissue culture techniques Clonal propagation Embryo and ovule culture Somaclonal variation 2 3 4 Anther culture 5 6 Somatic cell hybridization 7 Genetic transformation Procedures Utilizing Tissue Culture Techniques 1 Concept of totipotency a Dependant on plant family amp variable among families b Difficult in many of major crops c Genetic control of regeneration from callus culture d May be influenced by explant source Tissue culture success is influenced by media composition salts vitamins growth regulators N Plant Regeneration 1 From adventitious shoots somatic embryos axillary buds From callus or directly from tissue N Generally must go to a routing medium 5quot Transfer to soil under normal conditions P a Dessication b Pathogens c Become autotrophic 5 May experience genetic mutations Clonal Propagation 1 Advantages and applications for plant breeding a Large scale multiplication of heterozygous genotype b Increase of SI genotype c Increase of MS parent d Propagation of disease free stock e Preservation and exchange of germplasm 2 Commercial applications Embryo Culture 1 Rescue of incompatible interspecific hybrids 2 In vitro pollination and fertili ation Anther Culture and Haploid Plant Production 1 Reasons for use 2 Variabilityin success 3 Procedures 4 Factors affecting success 5 Use of doubled haploids in plant breeding Somaclonal Variation 1 Culture of superior cultivars 2 Cell culture screening and mutagenesis Somatic Cell Hybridization Plant Genetic Engineering Genetic Transformation 1 Definition of genetic engineering 2 Methods for genetic engineering a Agrobacterium b Particle gun bombardment c Others Agrobacterium Mediated Genetic Ttransformation Foreign DNA 0 l 9 O Cleavage site Restriction endonuclease Segment of foreign DNA Restriction endonuclease Bacterial plasmid Segment of plasmid DNA Plasmid vector with segment of foreign DNA inserted and the break annealed with DNA ligase Plant chromosome Sleper and Poehlman Fig 814 A transgenic bahiagrass line expressing the bar gene center surrounded by nontransgenic bahiagrass plants before left and three weeks after application of 3 gluiosinate herbicide 2 x the recommended rate Courtesy of Sukhpreet Sandhu Plant chromosomes with segment of foreign DNA Gene Mapping Using Molecular Markers Table 81 Sleperamp Poehlman Marker PCR based Polymorphism Dominance RFLP No lowmedium Co dominant RAPD Yes mediumhigh Dominant SSR Yes High Codominant AFLP Yes High Dominant SNP Yes Extremely high CodominantDom Pinpointing on the linka Steps Required for Marked Assisted Selection Development of a genome linkage map Quantative Trait Loci QTL An area ofa linka e ma where multiple genes controlling a speci c trait are located This will generally require extensive evaluation of segregating populations in multiple yearslocations ere markers ge map wh ith the trait are located QTL that vary w phenotype in questions Selection of PCRbased molecular markers linked with the QTL quot 39 L 39 Marked Assisted Selection 5 amp P 815 sagggannn r ngnnx P P 2 3 4 5 a Hide 2 UE innnow us anmninln mm in mm W mm product an F p is msiszamlm is suscnublelslmomhwlnr iamm rm n ntumndinmlll m w m w nvr WWW wenting lav mummnwimm whammy 5 Finn and p n my mm m odomina t marker with marker1 not linked to resistance utmarkerzislinked Conside egregating Only those individ mao r F1 uals that are 55 are resistant 1 R 7 XI Germplasm Resources and Conservation SampP Ch 13 AGR 43215321 Plant Breeding Genetic Improvement of Plants Fall 2008 K H Quesenberry XI Germplasm Resources and Conservation PampS Ch13 A What is germplasm It can be leaves pollen cell cultures or seeds but usually refers to seed B What types of germplasm do we conserve 1 Older cultivars 2 Landraces 3 Vl ld accessions ofthe cultivated species 4 Vl ld relatives 5 Primary secondary and tertiary gene pools Germplasm Variability Pearl Millet Germplasm Resources 3 Peanut Germplasm Resources rmquot w commm u ped nu mu u nuquot ma army Small Grain Germplasm Resources C Effects of Plant Breeding on Genetic Diversity 1 Plant breeding tends to reduce genetic diversity a Selection for uniform maturity for mechanization b Selection for specific pest resistances c Use of vegetatively propagated cultivars d Use of genetic mechanisms for hybridization 2 Genetic uniformity may lead to genetic vulnerability a Southern corn leaf blight b Irish potato famine c Leaf rust races in wheat D Centers of Genetic Diversity Vavilov 1 Chinese millet sesame soybean 2 Indian and Indomalayan chickpea finger millet mungbean rice sugarcane banana Central Asia chickpea lentil pea bread wheat Near East alfalfa barley lentil melon rye 3 4 5 Mediterranean broad bean cabbage oat pasta wheat 6 Ethiopian barley flax millet sesame 7 Mexico and Central America common bean maize cotton cucurbits 8 South America Chile Brazil Iima bean cotton potato sweet potato tomato cacao cassava peanut Note none in N America sunflower blueberry strawberry D Centers of Genetic Diversity Vavilov an 393 3 E International Germplasm Collections 1 IPGRI Rome Administrative 2 CIMMYT Mexico maize wheat triticale 3 ICRISAT India sorghum millet chickpea pigeonpea peanut 4 AVRDC Taiwan soybean and vegetables 5 quotTA Nigeria cowpea cassava sweet potato 6 CIP Peru potato sweet potato yam E International Germplasm Collections 7 ICARDA Syria wheat barley broad bean lentil 8 IRRI Philippines rice 9 CIAT Columbia tropical forages bean cassava 10 NJ Vavilov Center St Petersburg Russia all 11 EMBRAPA Brazil all tropical forages F US Germplasm System 1 Germplasm Resources Lab Eeltsvllle ND NA Reglonal F smons NE at Geneva NY 5 at crlmn GA m at Ames IA w at Pullman WA 0 clonal Reposmones Locameo where crops are grown Natlonal cemerrorcenenc Resource Preservauon Ftcollms co 5 Flam Quararmne and Plant lmrooucuon Eeltsvnle MD 6 Map of US NPGS National Germplasm Repositories Q s am pm lmrmuvllm sum 3 quotmm Sam stung marnary ll Reproduction in Crop Plants 5 amp P Ch 2 Reproduction in rop Plants A BreedingMemods S 8 P B Sexual Reproduction 1 Parts of the Flower 2 Kinds of flowers AGR 4321 a Perfect Flowers Fa 2007 b lmperfectflowers KH Quesenberry 1 Monoecious plants 2 Dioecious plants MItOSIS 5 Meiosis Prophase a Prophase Metaphase 1 Leptote ne Anaphase 2 239016 quot6 3 Pachytene Telophase Diplotene Interphase Diakinesis Meiosis a MegametogeneSIs Metaphase l Anaphase l Telophase l Prophase ll Metaphase ll Anaphase ll Temphase quot 5Vquot quot9quot 5 Fuslon Nuclel Endospemij Chromosome replication Micro ameto enesis g 9 Summary cell cycle DNA Replication Generatlve Nucleus Tube Nucleus Pollen Mltosls Pollination and Fertilization Pollination Pollen germination susu ngnhy F1 pm Pollen tube growth 2 Fusion of the sperm nuclei Double fertilization C Types of plant pollination 2 cross pollination 1 Self pollination b Unequal maturation of stamens and pistils a Clelstogamy 1 Protrandry b Crops normally selfpollinated 2 Protogyny 2 Cross pollination c Heterostyly a Imperfect Flowers 139 M n eclous d Crops normally crosspollinated 2 Dioecious e Crops both self and crosspollinated IX Biotechnology and Plant Breeding Sleper amp Poehlman Ch8 AGR 43215321 Plant Breeding Fall 2008 KH Quesenberry Biotech Means of Crop Improvement Identification of DNA markers associated with desirable traits marker assisted selection Pinpoint location of desirable traits on plant genomes using molecular markers Cloning of desirable genes Insertion of desirable novel genes from various species into unrelated species to produce new cultivars What is Biotechnology Genetic modification of living organisms Targeted genetic manipulations Introduction of new genetic material from related species by sexual means Introduction of foreign genetic material from unrelated species by transformation Important Steps Necessary for Molecular Biology Applications in Plant Breeding A Plant cell and tissue culture techniques amp applications Tissue culture techniques Clonal propagation Embryo and ovule culture Anther culture Somaclonal variation Somatic cell hybridization NP S PE P Genetic transformation Procedures Utilizing Tissue Culture Techniques 1 Concept of totipotency a Dependant on plant family amp variable among families b Difficult in many of major crops c Genetic control of regeneration from callus culture d May be influenced by explant source 2 Tissue culture success is influenced by media composition salts vitamins growth regulators 5 May experience genetic mutations Plant Regeneration 1 From adventitious shoots somatic embryos axillary buds N From callus or directly from tissue 5quot Generally must go to a rooting medium P Transfer to soil under normal conditions a Dessication b Pathogens cBecome autotrophic Clonal Propagation 1 Advantages and applications for plant breeding a Large scale multiplication of heterozygous genotype b Increase of SI genotype c Increase of MS parent d Propagation of disease free stock e Preservation and exchange of germplasm 2 Commercial applications Embryo Culture 1 Rescue of incompatible interspecific hybrids 2 In vitro pollination and fertilization Plant Genetic Engineering Genetic Transformation 1 Definition of genetic engineering 2 Methods for genetic engineering a Agrobacterium b Particle gun bombardment c Others A transgenic bahiagrass line expressing the bar gene center surrounded by nontransgenic bahiagrass plants before left and three weeks after application of 3 glufosinate herbicide 2 x the recommended rate Courtesy of Sukhpreet Sandhu Anther Culture and Haploid Plant Production 1 Reasons for use 2 Variability in success 3 Procedures 4 Factors affecting success 5 Use of doubled haploids in plant breeding Somaclonal Variation 1 Culture of superior cultivars 2 Cell culture screening and mutagenesis Somatic Cell Hybridization Agrobacterium Mediated Genetic Ttransformation Sleper and Poehlman Fig 814 Gene Mapping Using Molecular Markers Table 81 Sleperamp Poehlman Marker PCRbased Polymorphism Dominance RFLP No lowmedium Codominant PMPD Yes mediumhigh Dominant SSR Yes High Codominant AFLP Yes High Dominant SNP Yes Extremely high CodominantDom Breeding peanut A General Introductory Comments Hybridization of Crop Plants Ch 31 Species Arachis hypogaea L and Instructor Notes 2 Originated in South America Brazil Bolivia 3 Widely grown in tropical subtropical and warm temperate climates worldwide 4 In the USA primarily used as whole seeds and for peanut butter but on worldwide basis are a major AGR 4321 Plant Breeding source of vegetable oils AGR 5321 Genetic Improvement of Plants 5 Seed contain 45 to 52 oil and 25 to 30 protein Fall 2007 ggzgtiona y high values for both among all edible K H Quesenberry 6 The fact that seeds are borne underground presents unique challenges for cultivation and for breeding Peanut World Production Mt x 105 Peanut Is an Important Source of Proteln and Energy in Many Diets Year China India Nigeria USA Indonesia World 1993 1022 6 3142 1997 973 737 253 161 121 2959 898 253 180 122 3414 5 26 2 89 174 1 16 32 06 6 48 2 90 148 1 29 34 96 7 20 2 68 194 1 25 36 24 4 36 2 70 151 1 26 33 06 8 33 2 80 188 1 38 36 41 6 50 2 94 195 147 35 89 650 294 211 147 36 49 6 58 2 81 1 88 1 36 35 62 Puma zoo Nlrvnslml Am y cnunw 1 0 o 1750024999 o 1000017499 6000 9999 2000 5999 50 1999 US Production by State 2005 Others 10 Nnrlh Camlina 7 Georgia 42 Florida 0 Alabama 12 World Production of Major Oilseed Crops Oil and Meal Mean 1 1999 2003 Plant lProductionI Edible I Proteinl oil I I 011 I Meal I meal 1 Soybean 5 1732 25 E 19 794 I I I Cottonseedi 554 33 i 123 i 291 Maize 569 17 19 06 l Peanut i 346 52 i 69 i 346 Rapeseed 377 12 5 g 193 g 344 i i i Sunllower 252 a a 101 750 Iquot a B Germplasm Sources Cultivated peanut is a tetraploid 2n 4x 40 although 2 20 wild relatives are diploid 2n Ar both annual and perennial species in the genus and several of the perennial species are used as fora There are two subspecies and four interfertile varieties a subspecies hypogaea 1 variety hypogaea includes Virgl a and runner types 2 variety hirsuta some grown in Central America bsubspecies fastigiata 1 variety fastigiata Valencia market types 2 variety vularis Spanish market types Peanut Morphological Types a Bunch b Runner Peanut Market Types 1 SpanishSmall kernel redbrown skin mostly 2seeded pods erect bunch type nondormant 2 ValenciaSmall to medium kernel three or more seeds per pod erect bunch type nondorm ant 3 RunnerMedlum kernel 2 seeded pods spreading plant type dormant 75 ofUS production 5 E E 39 9 tn 1 7r 2 E Iquot 399 m m m a m a a o a Iquot m 399 m m 2 tn growth habit dormant 20 of US production 5 umboVery large kernels Virginia like plant only for specialty uses Peanut Seed Types C Floral Characteristics and Hybridization Peanut is normally selfpollinating estimated of outcrossing of 025 to 6 Anthesis generally occurs prior to flower expansion The stigma is normally buried among the dehised anthers in a tightly closed keel petal Peanut artificial hybrids are normally accomplished by emasculating the flowers in the evening and then pollinating them the following morning a This system is not compatible with normal working hours b Some programs trick plants by reversing daynight periods in growth chambers to cause them to be at appropriate stage for emasculation in the early morning This allows for more efficient use of labor D Floral Diagrams of Peanut E Making Artificial Hybrids 1 1 Tools required 2 a Fine point forceps b Pen knife scalpel or razor blade c 2X to 5X headset magnifier Identify buds that have elongated approximately 2 cm from the stem and large enough to manipulate by hand a Grasp the bud with thumb and index finger b Remove the sepal in front of keel and fold down sepals on side of bud Open standard with forceps pull wings out and down Break the keel open with forceps and hold it open Remove all anthers with as much filament as possible Pollinate the next morning rhpr E Making Artificial Hybrids 2 3 Marking and identifying crosses a If pollination and fertilization were successful you should see a developing peg in 3 to 5 days b At this point a color coded wire is looped around the the developing peg before it enters the soil c Other end of wire should be attached to stake in pot 4 Seed development and harvest a Seed harvest occurs 55 to 65 days after peg enters soil b Crossed seed should be used immediately c Peanut seed does not store well at room temperature 1 2 3 F Peanut Breeding Methods Pedigree or modified pedigree a Maximize segregation and selection b Allow for identification of segregates in later generations c Fits well with cultural practices for growing peanut Single pod a Rapid advance of material with multiple generations per year b Less record keeping Little to no use of bulk breeding method G Peanut Breeding Objectives 1 1 Yield a Large GxE interaction b Major impact of pest and diseases 2 Pest resistance a Pod borers b Rootknot nematodes c Others 3 Disease resistance Early leaf spot Late leaf spot Rust Tomato spotted wilt virus PPP39P 5quot 9 G Peanut Breeding Objectives 2 4 Seed quality a TSMK b Shelling A Oil Quality a High oleic Sunoleic 97R b Improved shelf life c Enhanced nutritional benefits Other specialty uses a Spanish types for Ballpark peanutsquot b Large or Valencia for boiling peanuts c Use of foliage for forage for beef cattle w P G H Peanut Breeding Programs orida a First and oldest Dixie Runner b Florunner 1969 dominated the US market for decade of the 70 s and early 80 s c High Oleic acid lines in early 1990s d Centered at Marianna with testing at Gainesville eorgia a Located at Tifton b Georgia Green with tolerance to TSWV North Carolina Oklahoma amp Texas Private industry VIII Fertility Regulating Mechanisms Their Manipulation and Implications for Plant Breeding Sleper and Poehlman Ch 7 AGR 43215321 Plant Breeding Genetic Improvement of Plants Fall 2008 K H Quesenberry A Self Incompatibility Mechanisms 1 Gametophytic or oppositional factor system Legumes grasses others a S1 S2 x S1 S2 fully incompatible b S1 Szx S2 S3 half the pollen is compatible c S1 S2 x S3 S4 fully compatible d An Sfallele exist which enables a plant having 8fo to be selfed Fig 71 P amp S Gametophytic SelfIncompatibility A Self Incompatibility mechanisms cont 2 Sporophytic system a Exhibits dominance and recessiveness b Pollen germination prevented on surface of stigma c Found in sunflower cabbage broccoli cacao but not in monocots 3 Uses of selfincompatibility in plant breeding a To facilitate crosses for hybrids b Cross pollination of self incompatible clones B Genetic Male Sterility 1 Generally more stable than female sterility 2 Is manifested by nuclear genes inhibiting normal pollen development a Level of sterility may vary b Environment may affect sterility 3 Male Sterile Genes a Most male sterile genes are recessive with MS fertile dominant over ms sterility b Maintenance of ms genes in a population is problematic Can t self a male sterile msms individual so if cross with MSlms only half of progeny are male sterile C Uses of genetic male sterility in plant breeding 1 Eliminate emasculation in hybridization 2 Increase cross pollination in selfpollinated crops 3 Facilitate commercial hybrid seed production a Major problem is elimination of male fertile segregants b Successful use with photoperiod sensitive male sterile mutant in rice D Cytoplasmic Male Sterility D Cytoplasmic male sterlllty con 139 Male sterility controned by the CytOPIasm bUt 3 Mechanism of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility usually Influenced by genes In the nucleus restoration 2 May be obtained by introduction of nuclear Female Male F1 chromosomes into a foreign cytoplasm CMSrfrf x Nrfrf CMSrfrf male sterile a Example in sorghum kafir chromosomes into CMSrfrf x NRfRf CMSRM male fertile milo cytoplasm CMSrfrf x CMSRfRf CMSRfrf male fertile CMSrfrf x NRfrf 1 CMSRfrf male fertile b Remember that cytoplasm is only 1 CMSrfrf male sterile transmitted through the egg e May result in genetic vulnerability 4 Utilization of cytoplasmic male sterility Fertility Restoration with CMS Maintenance of the MS Female Fig 75 P amp S with CMS A Line 9 Nuclear C B Line genetics areA the same but OMS 0318 OMS on different EED cytoplasm POLLEN POLLEN page i l page i l SPERM SPERM no cytoplasm no cytoplasm OFFSPRING OFFSPRING E Chemically induced male Apomixis sterility F Definition Seeds are produced without union of egg and sperm thus the embryo in the seed is a 1 Gametocides to spray on one parent to make it vegetative one Of the mother make Sterile 1 Many mechanisms 2 Research with cotton corn wheat sorghum a Obligate etc b Facultative 3 Problems with failure to make completely 2 Can be benefit or hindrance to plant breeding sterlle a If obligate limits selection potential 4 No successful commercial applications b If can identify a sexual female may be a very useful breeding system observations at An intact meiotic sac An intact nvulewilh Mn zpnspnric sacs Use of Apomi s in Plant Breeding x A s 25 25 Jl 1 A s lt A s 0 A A Possible variety Fertility Problems with Interspecific Hybrids G When we create interspecific hybrids by definition we expectt least some reduced fertili y hem to have at H Sources of fertility problems 1 Fa 2 Genetic interactions causing gamete abo on ilure of chromosomes to pair rti Fertility Problems May Be Overcome with Tricks I Triploid barriers 2x by 4x crosses may be addressed by doubling the chromosome numbers of one aren Often usefult transfer genes from wild species 2x to cultivate 4x We may be able to use In gamete production to accomplish the same oal as in I a ove rather than having to arti Icially doubling the m some of h 2x pecies K Taking advantage of protandry or protogeny gt Origin species and characteristics 1 Native to China a Introduced into USA originally as a forage crop b Used for both oil and protein 2 Species a Glycine max 2n2x40 b Glycine soja 2n2x40 3 Maturity groups highly photoperiodic a Short day flowering plant b Maturity groups vary from 000 to IX yb airn Maturity classes of soybean Vari a Wb aim Soybean Proximate Analysis Nutrient Unit Water Energy Protein Total lipid fat Carbohydrate Fiber Ash 1 98282828288 Soybean Soy Protein seeds 416 365 199 302 93 49 Conc Vaue per 1009 8 58 332 581 05 312 55 47 World Soybean Production 2006 Others 11 hree countries produce 82 ofthe China Worid s soybean 7 Argentina 19 Emil 25 Swissaim Major Soybean Producing Countries 19652005 Major SolDean mam u a e ff xa S ffffwquot year i new i es 1555 2mm f a x S
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