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by: Maureen Ledner


Maureen Ledner
GPA 3.51


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Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maureen Ledner on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MET 1010 at University of Florida taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/206629/met-1010-university-of-florida in Meteorology at University of Florida.

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Date Created: 09/18/15
Chapter 8 Precipitation It s harder than you might think to produce raindrops in a cloud Problems 1 Small water droplets lum evaporate much more readily than a at water surface 2 A small drop of pure water freezes at far below 0 C First why are l and 2 true and second why do they affect precipitation 1 For a small droplet the latent heat released by each condensing water vapor molecule has a greater effect on the temperature of the droplet Also large curvature means bonding of water vapor molecules to the droplet is smaller So higher than 100 relative humidity is required for small cloud droplets to grow 2 Without ice nuclei present it is difficult for water to freeze Ice embryos are formed and destroyed by thermal motion In a large drop the probability is higher that one will survive Then drop rapidly freezes Example Say on average an ice embryo gets large enough at 730 C every 100 um distance Then drops of 20 um will only rarely freeze at that temperature Effect of l and 2 on Precipitation How do large drops form Note Small drops won t fall out of clouds because of small terminal velocity m Vt terminal velocity constant X pA m mass of falling object p density of the air through which the mass falls A cross sectional area of falling object take horizontal slice at largest point Mass M Area A drag force Drag force Fd increases with l vvelocity increasing speed When Fd Flg V constant gravity Vt smaller for water than air pW gt pair Vt larger for larger m Vt larger for smaller A 2 water drops which 9 has a higher Vt d1 d2 d2 gtd1 mass0cd3 Aoc d2 mAocd 2vt J5 Large drops form as they fall through a fog of slower small drops and absorb them This is coalescence In addition to the above collision and coalescence process in colder regions of clouds rain can form by the ice crystal process A few small droplets freeze and are surrounded by thousands of small water droplets Recall at temperatures below freezing the vapor pressure of water is greater than that of ice see Figure 510 insert Therefore water diffuses from water drops to ice crystals and the ice grows while the water drops shrink Eventually the ice crystals are large enough to fall through the cloud They may reach the ground as rain or snow Precipitation Types Snow sleet freezing rain rain 7 see Fig 822 Rime rhymes with rhyme is the accretion of tiny supercooled water droplets on something frozen Usually roughly spherical amp not dense Rime that gets to be 25mm in diameter is called Graupel Graupel that reaches ground can be 1 Soft hail 7 if ground is above freezing 2 Snow pellet 7 if ground is below freezing they bounce and crunch Size lt 5mm 3 Hail 7 if graupel stays in cloud more than 75 min amp is carried around by strong air currents Hail is larger than snow pellets In wetter areas liquid water collects on surface amp later freezes 7 this forms hard clear ice layer Cumulus Cloud In colder dryer areas of cloud a layer of opaque rime forms with many air bubbles see fig 826 1671b 55 diameter hailstone Instruments Rain Gauge Radar RAdio Detection And Ranging Transmitter I Reeeeeee rain cloud Microwave pulses are sent out amp some are scattered back to receiver Brightness intensity of signal indicates how much rain Time of arrival in receiver indicates how far away rain is Wavelength is l 7 20 centimeters l centimeter gt cloud droplets Larger waves gt rain drops ice pellets hail etc


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