Intro World Geography
Intro World Geography GR 1123
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Arlandria on Friday March 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GR 1123 at Mississippi State University taught by Claire Babineaux in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Into World Geography in Geography at Mississippi State University.
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Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class.
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Date Created: 03/11/16
Europe Some Interesting Cultural Differences Cars are mostly manual transmission o US mostly automatic o Smaller in Europe; huge in the US Tips and taxes are already included in price (VAT) o In the US we pay tax on top of price o We pay a gratuity in addition to cost of service Like to drink…a lot o Booze, coffee, tea, (not much water) Europeans work less and have much more vacation** o Defined by law in some nations o 4 weeks of vacation at the very least Lunch is a big deal o Dinner not so much Power Outlets Basic Facts about Europe Population of the Continent o 600 million people o 11% of the world 42 countries in a very small area o Europe is the smallest continent by area o 3.9 million sq. miles (Europe) o 3.8 million sq. miles (just the US) Human Civilization can find its roots as far back as 7000 BC in Europe o Origin of Modern History o VERY complex history Highly Urbanized Realm o 75% of the population lives in an urban area Vast difference between East and West o Past Soviet States and Western Culture Ukraine is the largest country in area o Vatican City has the smallest area Germany has the largest population Technically, Europe is a peninsula of Asia WWII massively changed the layout of Europe o Both politically and geographically Complexity of Europe Europe contains 5% of the worlds land but has 20% of the worlds countries Nations were formed as a result of… Nationality: o Protects you legally internationally o Also makes you follow the laws of the state you are from o Automatically given when you are born You can gain dual-nationally through marriage or by expatriation Cultural Diversity 49 different languages in 11 major Indo-European families Mostly Christian roots (product of the Crusades) o Secularism is on the rise o Catholic and Protestant tension o Islam increasing in South Eastern Europe Economic Disparity Economies in Europe Poorest Country in Europe is Moldova o Average income per citizen $3,500 per year o Communist economy o Former Soviet Territory (new country) o Entire economy is based on Agriculiturer o Land-locked Richest Country in Europe is Luxembourg o Average income per citizten is $109,000 o Smalles How is Europe Connected? Economies and Political Networks Complementarity: Excess products and goods can be shared with others within the realm given the need Coal in Britian for Cars in Germany Norway Lumber, Greece Cotton Transferability: very easy to move goods via transport networks and infrastructure Small area (efficiency?) Spatial Area of Europe About 60% the size of the US But contains twice the amount of people Ca. 600 million citizens live in Europe Climate Mostly mild climate type Decent precipitation all year round Cool to cold winters Warm to hot summers The Gulf Stream Moves heat from the tropics to the poles Moves water from FL to Europe Controls the European climate dramatically Warms air above the water through conduction Moderates climate How we know it affects climate? December average temp for London 42F December average temp in St Johns Bay, CA 27F Physical Geographic Regions of Europe Central Uplands "the heart of Europe" Alpine Mountains Pyrenees to the Balkan Mtns. Includes most of the Mediterranean Western Uplands Very old geographically North European Lowlands Culturally diverse and complex Ancient Europe After the last ice age, people started to move into Europe Predominantly from Africa & Asia Mostly hunter-gathers at first; much later came agriculture Neolithic (simple stone tools, spears, fire, domestication of animals) 10,000 BCE Copper Age (simple shields, modest swords, axes, armor) 5000 BCE Bronze Age (sailing, trade, navigation, Stonehenge was built, writing developed) 3000 BCE Iron Age (Iron, then Steel) 1200 BCE to AD Greece Rise of Science, Philosophy, Government, Art, formal writing/mathematics Origins of Western Government (Republic & Democracy) City-State: a city that has its own government and which it controls the surrounding territory to form an independent state Past examples: Athens & Sparta Current day examples: Washington D.C., Mexico City, Vatican City, Singapore Roman Empire Created urban areas and trade routes Aqueducts, roads, Coliseum, buildings with plumbing, brick roads, standard currency Allowed control over their lands and people Vast infrastructure Dominant language, which majorly influenced culture, still to this day e.g., "Romance Languages" Empire collapsed 5th century A.D "Dark" or "Middle" Ages Tribes of German and Slavic people from Asia, the Middle East and Africa moved into Europe Rise of religion squashed science, the arts, philosophy Also includes the Crusades Feudalist System Feudal System King Tenants-in-chief Knights(lords) Peasants The Church v. Galileo The Church believed in Geocentricism Galileo was a proponent of Heliocentrism In 1633, was found "vehemently suspect of heresy", and convicted as a heretic. During the trial, he was tortured to "abjure, curse and detest" his beliefs He was given house arrest for the remainder of his life. European Crusades "Military campaigns sanctioned by the Roman Catholic Church during the Middle Ages" 11th, 12th, 13th centuries Began in 1095 Pope Urban ll's plea for war with Muslim World ("Saracen") Recovery of the Holy Land (Jerusalem) European Revolutions: Cultural and Political Colonialism Territorial development strategy where a territory is occupied by a foreign government Used military power to acquire foreign territories and resources Organization according to objectives related to resource acquisition and market expansion Often politically, religious or racially driven Between 1400 and 1945, colonial movements were undertook by Europe all over the world 1400-1800: Spain, Portugal, Holland, France and England were the main colonial powers After 1800: England had a dominance over others Early Modern Europe Renaissance began in the early to mid 1400's to the early 1600's A desire to expand knowledge Appreciation for science and the arts The foundation of modern states began in this time period As the population rose…monarchies, tribes began fighting over resources and land A desire to formally recognized territory was demanded by the wealthy Cities began to grow rapidly, desire to establish control Agrarian Revolution Growth of ports, cities and markets demanded food Farming became huge in Europe Started the system of trade for goods and services (a system; key for a region to develop) Agrarian Revolution Began in Europe in the 1750s Based on new agricultural innovations: Mechanization and fertilizers Scientific and commercial agriculture Crop rotation Declining food prices New crops (e.g. Potato, Tomato) Enabled increased food production (efficiency!!) Enabled sustained population increase Political Revolutions Growth helped to unify areas further Establish territories and end fighting The Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 Recognized Spain, Netherlands, Sweden, many others Established international law (property rights) Early Europe: monarch had absolute power, with few given to the people By the end of the Industrial Revoluation Monarchs on their way out… French Revolution ended the absolute power of monarchs in Europe (late 1700's) Political Revolutions cont… Creation of the modern Nation - State: The concept of nationalism (19th century) Democracy/ Parliamentary systems: Rebellion against absolute political power(monarchy) Separation between the State and the Church Not really (Church of England; The Vatican Industrial Revolution Started in the UK between, 1750-1850 Technical innovations occurred in British industry: New materials Thermal energy Mechanized labor Production Transportation Health Proved to be a major catalyst towards increased urbanization Improved European global power Was not a "sudden process" Took place in several areas at different times Started in Britain and moved east into European continent, eventually into NA in the mid-1800's (post Civil War) Britain was the origin since if had access to raw materials from around the globe Textiles, Steam power (boats, trains) Iron Making (Furnaces, ships, stoves, cannons, weapons) France, Germany, Poland, Scandinavia, and Russia started getting involved with supplying raw materials eventually with production of their own Lots of social inequality Problems that arose during Industrial Revolution General Exploitation… Child Labor Long working hours Safety Very low pay Most people didn't have a choice…. If they complained, they were replaced World War l: "The Great War" WWl July 1914 - November 1918 9 million people were killed in Europe Many issues leading up to WWl: (imperialism, nationalism, alliances) Triple Entente The Central Powers The "Spark"…. Western front in France and Eastern front in Russia 1st war where Chemical Weapons were used Trench Warfare Military strategy did not match the technology of the day… Results of WWl Technology grew tremendously Tanks, guns, aircraft, communication, submarines Showed the US was a legitimate world power Was neutral the start of the war Balkans, Hungary, Turkey became free from the Ottoman Empire Treaty of Versailles Made Germany pay Fascism grew, nationalism or nation state patriotism grew in Germany as a result Treaty of Versailles and The League of Nations Versailles was intended to punish Germany and prevent them from ever gaining military power again The League of Nations Principle mission was to: Lacked authority and control United Nations (UN) World War ll 85 million people were killed (21 million of which were Russian) Deadliest conflict in human history Two sides Allied Powers Axis Powers Started on Sept. 1st 1939 when Germany invaded Poland Blitzkrieg = "lightning war" Turning point in the war is when Germany invaded Russia (dual fronts) Aftermath: Decolonization of lands (India, Asia, African Countries) New Countries were drawn Israel was created Cold War and Nuclear race The UN, European Union, IMF, and NATO were formed The United Nations (UN) A product of WWll (replace the League of Nations) Started with 51 states, today has 193 countries Major goal was/is to avoid WWlll Human rights Diplomacy over conflict Avoid genocides The European Union Major goal was to rebuild Europe Economically Reduce trade tariffs between European countries Also a product of WWll Produced by Europe, not the US (as opposed to the UN) US was involved in helping it get on its feet (i.e. Marshall Plan) $13 billion to help rebuild both physical, economic and political sectors Supernationalism: a voluntary association in economic, political, and cultural spheres of 3 or more nations who are 3 or more nations who are willing to give over the sovereignty for mutual benefit UK, Ireland, and Denmark joined in 1973 England kept their currency (Pound) Today 27 countries are in the EU (2013) The capital is located in Brussels Current Day EU Allows citizens to move between countries for work without passports Created a central bank and currency (1999) Euro is more powerful than the American dollar (1 Euro is ~ $1.15) Greek Epsilon (symbol for the cradle of humanity) Helped growth in infrastructure, flow of money, labor and goods Taxes collected in rich countries are used for non-prosperous ones Some issues… NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization Created in 1949 to stabilize Europe after WWll Established by the United States (NOT EUROPE) More concerned with security than economics Helped Europe militarily against the Soviet Union Today it is more focused with terrorism, weapons of mas destruction, and cyber security Now focused globally, not just Europe International Monetary Fund (IMF) Major Goals: Secure financial stability Grow international trade and reduce poverty Part of the UN Charter and includes 188 countries Established to help rebuild economies after WWll and to help avoid another Great Depression Provides: Guidance to central banks and analysis of economics trends globally Aid to help fight poverty Germany 82 million people Initially was made up of several tribes, royal families Unified late 1800's early 1900's Was divided after WWll West Germany = part of Europe East Germany = USSR Contains 16 states today Highly Urbanized 89% of the population A leader in Europe: Manufacturing/economic stability Largest economy of Europe Has the Autobahn (interstate system) France 64 million people Oldest state in the Europe Urban: Paris 2.2 million people Contains the highest mountain in Europe: Mount Blanc Huge in Agriculture (biggest producer in Europe) Cattle, Grapes (wine), Cheese Escoffier!!! Mirepoix Frittes, not French Fries Great Britain United Kingdom 62.7 million people Regions: England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland Surrounded by water: North Sea, English Channel, and the Atlantic Ocean The US's strongest global ally National Dish: Chicken Tikka Masala Ireland Highest growing economy in the EU Uses the Euro Gained Independence from the UK in 1921 Conflict between the Catholics and Protestants Irish Republican Army (IRA) English and Gaelic are the national languages Italy 60.5 million people Major regions or states: Tuscany, Milan , Venice, Piedmont Rich urbanized North Poor rural South Sicily is very poor and underdevelopment Origin of La Cosa Nostra Milan-Turin-Genoa triangle Heavy manufacturing Milan is the largest city in Italy "Rock" of Gibraltar 2.6 sq mile area (peninsula) South Spain Owned by Britian Surrendered by Spain in 1713 (via the War of the Spanish Succession) Official language is English Important military and economically Access to the Mediterranean Sea from Atlantic
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