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by: Edward Avakian


Marketplace > University of California - Irvine > African American Studies > AfAm 40B > Weeks 6 8 Notes HELPFUL WITH FINAL STUDY GUIDE
Edward Avakian
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Lecture notes from weeks 6-8 that will help you for the final
Racial Theories in Context
Jared Sexton
Class Notes




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Edward Avakian on Friday March 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AfAm 40B at University of California - Irvine taught by Jared Sexton in Winter 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Racial Theories in Context in African American Studies at University of California - Irvine.

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Reviews for Weeks 6-8 Notes *HELPFUL WITH FINAL STUDY-GUIDE*


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Date Created: 03/11/16
AfAm 40B Weeks 6-8  Net worth – the black-white gap; the differences in accumulated wealth – net worth – are far greater than the differences in income, and that impacts black families’ prospects of moving up in a big way (Holland)  Intergenerational assistance – a fancy way of saying that one’s chances to advance economically are very much impacted on whether or not one’s family can help with tuition payments, a down payment on a house or seed money to start a business. Differences in net worth make the difference between upward mobility and stagnation (Holland)  Racial wealth gap – the wealth gap in America is the accumulated legacy of generations of institutional racism at work. Clearly, racism still plays a significant role in black America’s extraordinarily insecure economic status. This should be obvious, but it isn’t (Holland)  This generation of African Americans is the first one afforded the legal, educational, and job opportunities to accumulate financial assets essential to launching social mobility and sustaining well- being throughout the life course (Oliver and Shapiro)  Despite legal gains in civil rights, asset inequality in America has been growing rapidly in the last 20 years (Oliver and Shapiro)  Despite some income gains, African Americans own only 7 cents for every dollar of net worth that white Americans own. Even when middle-class accomplishments like income, job, and education are comparable, the racial wealth gap is stuck stubbornly at about 25 cents on the dollar (Oliver and Shapiro)  In 2003, white median wealth is 8 times black median wealth  In 2008, white median wealth is 15 times black median wealth  In 2011, white median wealth is 20 times black median wealth  Racial Targeting – changes in the mortgage market were not racially neutral. Sub-prime loans were targeted at the African American community (Oliver and Shapiro)  Many critics now describe the sub-prime crisis as the consequence of bad loans to unqualified borrowers. In fact, the issue needs to be reframed to focus on the onerous terms of these loans (Oliver and Shapiro)  When lower-income families have similar terms of credit as conventional buyers, and they are linked with a community- based social and organizational infrastructure that helps them become ready for home-ownership, they pay similar interest rates and default at similar rates (Oliver and Shapiro)  Predatory lending – high hidden costs, exploding adjustable rates, balloon payments, prepayment penalties, etc. AfAm 40B Weeks 6-8  Wealth stripping – minority communities received a disproportionate share of sub-prime mortgages and are suffering a disproportionate burden of the harm and losses. In addition to being targeted by mortgage companies specializing in sub-prime lending, they were steered away from safer, conventional loans by brokers receiving incentives for jacking up interest rates. African Americans who qualified for conventional mortgages, even those with high incomes, were steered to riskier sub-prime loans (Oliver and Shapiro)  This generation of African Americans is the first one afforded the legal, educational, and job opportunities to accumulate financial assets essential to launching social mobility and sustaining well- being throughout the life course (Oliver and Shapiro)  Foreclosures are projected to affect 1 in 10 African American borrowers (2.5 times the rate for white borrowers). The total loss of wealth among African American households is upwards of $93 billion for sub-prime loans taken out during the past decade (Oliver and Shapiro)  Sub-prime loans and foreclosures are concentrated in low-to- moderate income communities, especially minority communities. An additional 40 million neighboring homes will be devalued by foreclosures in their community (Oliver and Shapiro)  After centuries of denial of any opportunity to accumulate wealth, after only a few decades of limited opportunities, after only a single generation of significant wealth accumulation; the African American community faces the greatest loss of financial wealth in its history. Institutional processes and racialized policy are trumping hard-earned educational, job, and income advances (Oliver and Shapiro)  Home wealth – home equity is the most important reservoir of wealth for average American families and disproportionately so for African Americans [63% total avg. net worth vs. 39% for white families.] Given this centrality of homeownership as a source of wealth accumulation for black families, and the racialized dynamics of housing markets, sub-prime has been a special disaster for black upward mobility (Oliver and Shapiro)  Recreational Racism – if the market imperative and ‘homeowners rights’ arguments freed white residents from confronting the logic of their policies, their racial preoccupations were revealed by their enthusiasm for what might be called ‘recreational’ racism – the open embrace of degrading racial parody (Hoff)  Great Migration - over 4 million blacks migrated from the South to the North, Midwest, and West between 1910-1930, over AfAm 40B Weeks 6-8 7 million by 1970; the largest internal migration in US history (Hoff)  When addressing the history of black women, we must consider this movement beyond strictly economic motives, including a flight from sexual vulnerability and an attempt to gain control of one’s sexual being and to provide for the better protection of children (Hoff)  Black women challenged their position as sexual hostages and victims of domestic violence, seeking in migration the power of protection and the agency of social change (Hoff)  They worked to control both their productive and their reproductive capacities and to determine the terms of their won sexuality more generally (Hine)  The fundamental tension between Black women and the rest of the society…this ever-evolving, constantly shifting, but relentless war…the relationship between Black women and the larger society has always been, and continues to be, adversarial (Hine)  The interplay of racial animosity, class tensions, and gender role differentiation (Hine)  Culture of Dissemblance o Dissemblance – the behavior and attitudes of Black women that created the appearance of openness and disclosure but actually shielded the truth of their inner lives and selves from their oppressors. Only with secrecy could ordinary Black women accrue psychic space and harness resources needed to hold their own in the mismatched resistance struggle (Hine)  To suggest that Black women deliberately developed a culture of dissemblance implies that they endeavored to create, and were not reacting to, widespread misrepresentations and negative images of themselves in white minds. Clearly, Black women did not possess the power to eradicate negative social and sexual images of their womanhood (Hine)  Rather, in the face of the pervasive stereotypes and negative estimations of the sexuality of Black women, it was imperative that they collectively create alternative self-images and shield from scrutiny these private, empowering definitions of self (Hine)  Black Women’s Club Movement – national association of colored women (NACW)  1896 co-founders: Harriet Tubman, Frances E. Harper, Ida B. Wells, Mary Church Terrell  Largest black protest organization by history, membership over 300K by WW1 AfAm 40B Weeks 6-8  At the core of essentially ever activity of NACW’s individual members was a concern with creating positive images of Black women’s sexuality. To counter negative stereotypes many Black women felt compelled to downplay, even deny, sexual expression (Hine)  Twin focus on naming and combating sexual exploitation of black women  Promoted middle class sexual norms, a “Victorian sense of modesty,” a “perennial concern with image.”  Created an infrastructure of resistance: job training, housing, education, etc.  Pitfalls of Dissemblance o Complicates writing of black women’s history o Obscures the political struggles of black women past and present o Restricts black female sexual autonomy, especially regarding differences of class and sexuality  Intersectionality – a theory that posits different layers of oppression within a society, such as racism, sexism, homophobia, classism, as related phenomena. Because these forms of oppression invariably overlap and often intersect, the theory of intersectionality aims to reveal multiple identities, and to expose the different types of discrimination and disadvantage that occur as a consequence of the combination of identies  No! The Rape Documentary – funded by Ford Foundation and contributions from hundreds of institutions and individuals over more than a decade; subtitled in French, Spanish, and Portuguese; screened in two dozen countries in the Americas, Europe, Africa, and Asia o Supplemental 2007 film, Breaking Silences  Reproductive Oppression – the control and exploitation of women, girls, and individuals through our bodies, sexuality, labor, and reproduction (Ross)  Reproductive Justice – o Coined: 1994, Black Women’s Caucus of Illinois Pro-Choice Alliance following International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo o Defined: “reproductive health integrated into social justice” o Revised: “the complete physical, mental, spiritual, political, social, environmental, and economic well-being of women and girls, based on the full achievement and protection of women’s human rights o Objectives: (1) the right to have a child; (2) the right not to have a child; and (3) the right to parent the children we AfAm 40B Weeks 6-8 have, as well as to control our birthing options, such as midwifery o Arenas: (1) reproductive health viz. service delivery, (2) reproductive rights viz. legal regime, (3) reproductive justice viz. movement-building o “We also fight for the necessary enabling conditions to realize these rights. This is in contrast to the singular focus on abortion by the pro-choice movement” (Ross) o “The rhetoric of ‘choice’ has masked the ways that laws, policies and public officials punish or reward the reproductive activity of different groups of women differently” (Ross) o “Reproductive Justice is a base-building analysis that focuses on organizing women, girls and their communities to challenge structural power inequalities in a comprehensive and transformative process of empowerment” (Ross)


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