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Chemistry 100 chapter 4 notes

by: Carly Holliday

Chemistry 100 chapter 4 notes Chem 100

Marketplace > Indiana State University > Chem 100 > Chemistry 100 chapter 4 notes
Carly Holliday
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This chapter focuses on bonding ionic compounds and molecular compounds. We also use these properties to name them.
Chemistry 100
Dr. Jeewandara
Class Notes
ions, Molecules, Bonding, Chemical Reactions, Conversion Factors, Chemistry
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carly Holliday on Friday March 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 100 at Indiana State University taught by Dr. Jeewandara in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 136 views.


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Date Created: 03/11/16
CHEMISTRY  CHEM 100­002 CH 4 NOTES MOLECULES/COMPOUNDS/CHEMICAL REACTIONS 4.1 Molecules Cause the Behavior of Matter Water does what water molecules do, air does what air molecules do, and humans do what the  molecules that compose us do. It is that simple, and it is always true. In all of science history, an  exception to this rule has not yet been found. In this chapter, we begin our journey of understanding molecules and how they form the  macroscopic substances that we experience every day. 4.2 Chemical Compounds and Formulas Chapter three told us that all matter is composed of atoms. Now we are going to focus on  compounds (or mixtures of compounds) that make up a lot of things we see, use and consume. Examples: Water, salt, sugar, ammonia, air, and many other things. Chemical Formula: A formula that tells us what elements are in a compound and the ratio of the  different elements that are present. Ratios: How many of one object goes with a certain amount of another  (ex: 4 tires = 1 car) 4:1 ratio Important!: Compounds such as H O sh2uld never be confused with mixtures of hydrogen and  oxygen. Hydrogen and oxygen are both gases, and a mixture of the two is also a gas. The  compound H O 2s a liquid with very different properties. Finding the number of atoms in a molecule: EX 1: CCl  4­­­­­­­­­­­­­­Answer: Carbon:1  Chloride:4 EX 2: Al (SO )  ­­­­­­­­­Answer: Aluminum:2 Sulfur:3  Oxygen:12 2 4 3 EX 3: K 2 ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­Answer: Potassium:2  Oxygen:1 4.3 Ionic and Molecular Compounds Elements with unstable electron configurations will usually form compounds with other elements to gain stability. We divide compounds into two types—ionic and molecular—based on whether  their constituent elements transfer electrons or share electrons to attain stability. Ionic: A compound that contains one metal and one or more nonmetal. Transfer the Electrons.  Metals lose electrons while Nonmetals gain electrons. When the transfer of electrons happen, the two elements create an ionic bond. When ionic compounds dissolve in water, they dissociate to form ions. Solutions with dissolved  ions are called electrolyte solutions and are good conductors of electricity because the ions move the electricity through the solution. Molecular Compound: a compound that has two or more nonmetals bonded together. This bond  is called a Covalent Bond. These elements in the compound share electrons to gain stability. Molecule: Clusters of two or more atoms bonded together. Molecular Formula: The chemical formula that specifies the actual number of each kind of atom  in the molecule, not just the simplest ratio. EX 1: C H6 6s named Benzene has a simple ratio of 1:1 but it is not represented like that  because the molecule is made up of 6 carbon atoms and 6 hydrogen atoms all  bonded together. Molecules can be very large and complex. One molecule can contain thousands of atoms. The properties of molecules are very important to the way they behave. Take water for instance.  Its molecular shape is bent like a boomerang. If it was somehow straight, its properties as a  substance would change. It may boil at room temperature instead of 100 degrees Celsius. This  would cause all the water on earth to evaporate. 4.4 Naming Compounds Naming Ionic compounds: [Name of metal (cation)]  [name of metal (anion)+ide] EX 1: NaCl name: Sodium Chloride EX 2: MgO name: Magnesium Oxide EX 3: Li 2 name: Lithium Sulfide The names of ionic compounds do not contain prefixes such as di or tri to indicate the number of  each type of atom. However, some ions with transition metals include roman numerals.  EX 1: FeCl  3Name: Iron (III) Chloride  Polyatomic Ions: Ions with more than two types of atoms included.  EX 1: KNO   3ame: Potassium Nitrate  EX 2: CaCO  N3me: Calcium Carbonate  Calcium carbonate is an example of an ionic compound containing a polyatomic ion (CO )  32­ Calcium carbonate is common in nature, occurring in eggshells, seashells and limestone. Calcium carbonate is used in many consumer products because of its low toxicity, structural  stability, and tendency to neutralize acids. It is the main ingredient in a number of building  materials(cement and marble) It also is the main component of popular over­the­counter antacids like Tums. EX 3: NaOH Name: Sodium Hydroxide. The 6 Polyatomic ions you HAVE to memorize for the test 2­ 1. Carbonate  CO 3 2. Bicarbonate  HCO 3­ 3. Hydroxide   OH ­ ­ 4. Nitrate        NO 3 5. Phosphate   PO 43­ 2­ 6. Sulfate      SO 4 Naming Molecular Compounds: [(prefix) If there is more than 1 metallic element]  [(prefix) Name of other metallic element] **If the first part of the compound only has one element present do not write the prefix mono** EX: CO   2ame: carbon dioxide EX 2: N O name: Dinitrogen monoxide 2 EX 3: CCl  n4me: Carbon tetrachloride ? EX 4: BCl  n3me: Boron trichloride ? EX 5: SF  name: Sulfur hexafluoride 5 4.5 Formula Mass/Molar Mass of Compounds Formula Mass: The sum of mass of all the elements in a compound  EX 1: H O 2 (2) Mass H + Mass O = Formula Mass (2) 1.01amu + 15.99amu = 18.01amu  EX 2: CCl 4 Mass C + (4) Mass Cl = Formula Mass 12.01amu + (4) 35.45amu = 153.81amu Molar Mass: The number of grams per mole of a substance  The Formula Mass = Molar Mass For example, H O2has a formula mass of 18.01amu; therefore, H O h2s a molar mass of   18.01g/mol—one mole of water molecules has a mass of  18.01grams. Converting from grams to # of molecules is just like converting from grams to # of atoms in  CH3. 1mol 6.022E23molecules Gramsgiven X molarmassg X 1mol =¿Molecules 4.6 Composition of Compounds: Chemical Formulas as Conversion Factors  * good questions like these on the studyguide* Asking how much sodium is in a packet of salt is much like asking how many tires are in 120  cars. We need a conversion factor between tires and cars. For cars, the conversion factor comes  from our knowledge about cars; we know that each car has four tires. This sign ≡ means, “…equivalent to…”  SO  4 Tires ≡ 1 Car 2 H atoms ≡ 1 O atom ≡ 1 H O M2lecule  4.7 Forming/Transforming Compounds: Chemical Reactions Compounds are made in chemical reactions and can be transformed into other compounds by  chemical reactions. Chemical Equations: representations of chemical reactions *Remember* Reactants  Products  EX:  CH 4 +  O 2   CO 2+ H 2  (unbalanced) C = 1 C = 1 H = 4  H = 2 O = 2 O = 3 To balance the equation, you must make each side (Reactants and Products) the same, so we add  coefficients to the reactants and products to make the number of atoms of each type of element  on both sides of the equation equal. This changes the number of molecules involved in the  reaction, but it does not change the kind of molecules. This satisfies the law of conservation of  mass. EX:  CH 4+ 2 O 2  CO  2 2 H O2(balanced) C = 1 C = 1 H = 4 H = 4 O = 4 O = 4 When you put a coefficient in front of an element or compound, you have to multiply the  coefficient by ALL subscripts.  Helpful Hints: 1. If an element occurs in only one compound on both sides of the equation, balance that  element first. 2. If an element occurs as a free element on either side of the chemical equation, balance  that element last. 3. Change only the coefficients to balance a chemical equation, never the subscripts.  Changing the subscripts changes the compound. 4. Clear coefficient fractions by multiplying the entire equation by the appropriate factor. 4.8 Reaction Stoichiometry: Chemical Equations as Conversion Factors The coefficients in a chemical equation can be used as conversion factors in calculations. They  allow us to predict how much of some reactant might be needed in a reaction or how much of a  particular product will be formed. In a chemical reaction, we have a “recipe” for how molecules combine to form other molecules.  Here is a good example: when CH  is4being burned CO  and 2ater are produced. This  Equation shows HOW MUCH CO  is produ2ed.


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