Psychology 1410 - Ch. 1 Intro to Psychology
Psychology 1410 - Ch. 1 Intro to Psychology Psy-1410-007
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carley Olejniczak on Friday March 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy-1410-007 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Seth Marshall in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 03/11/16
Ch. 1 Intro to Psychology Different Ways of Knowing Intuition/Inspiration/Revelation o Feelings and emotional wisdom o Personal and meaningful to individuals but could be inaccessible to others Authority/Language o Utilizes wisdom of “great” people o Can rely too much on authority figures o They can be wrong Reason/Logic (Rationalism) o Always checking for rules of logic and consistency o “common sense” o Mau hide logical fallacies o Unrelated to the “real world” o May seem logical but is merely a social convention Sensory Perception/Observation (Empiricism) o Observable facts o Objective o Assumes: Problems have solutions Constant rules underlie nature We can understand, predict, and control Reliability and Validity Foundation: reliability and validity o Taking a measurement to collect data in a reliable way and getting valid results Reliability – is the measure consistent, reproducible, and stable? Validity – Are we measuring what we really want to measure? o Just because the data is consistent doesn’t mean it’s valid o Must have reliability to have validity Empirical Methods Observation – naturalistic and structured Survey/Interview/Questionnaire Case Studies Correlation Design Experimental Design Observation Structured observation: o Unobtrusive o Recorded immediately o Repeated several times o Multiple observers’ observations should be compared o Systematic and scientific Hawthorne Effect: the effect on people’s behavior when they know they are being observed Arnold Gesell: first to observe the milestones of child development in structured observation Naturalistic Observation: o Unobtrusive observation of how people behave in their natural environment Example: kids at recess, home life, or families o Go into the natural environment and observe instead of in a clinic Observation limitations o Subjective nature of interpretation (observer bias) o Subject reactivity (Hawthorne Effect) o Reliability and validity issues Survey/Interview/Questionnaire Likert Scale o surveys usually not just yes or no; instead uses Likert scale o Example: “On a scale of 1-5 (1 being not at all and 5 being very much), how much do you like….” o Surveys have safeguard questions to make sure people are answering honestly and paying attention Case Studies Studies specific people and the human condition Allows us to observe and study things that don’t happen often to better understand the extremes of human condition Can sometimes be so extreme that it doesn’t relate to the general public They are so rare that it’s difficult to be sure of the reliability of the results Correlation Design Examines the relationship between 2 variables o Ex: number of cigarettes smoked and the rates of lung cancer Uses no manipulation The researcher observes or measures the variables of interest (observation, survey, public records, etc.) “To what degree are they correlated?” NOT “yes they are correlated” or “no they are not” Strength of correlation ranges from .00 to 1.00 Positive vs. Negative Correlation o Scatter plots Correlation does not imply causation Consider plausible third variables that may affect the initial correlation Experimental Design Uses manipulation Independent variable – what do I change? Dependent variable – what do I observe? o Outcome variable Better at determining causation Double – Blind Study – participants and researchers don’t know which is the experimental group or the control group (placebo) Ethics in Psych Research Institutional Review Board – approval of study Informed Consent – no withheld info or deception o Assent for minors – get consent from parents AND child Full disclosure of purpose Confidentiality – to protect participants, usually anonymous
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