Diversity II Notes Week 8
Diversity II Notes Week 8 211
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacob Erle on Friday March 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 211 at Syracuse University taught by Justine Weber in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life II in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 03/11/16
Diversity of Life 11 Notes Week 8 3816 ILtroductjon to Insects Phylum Ecdvsow synapomorphy is shedding of exoskeleton Order Panarthropoda most primitive of arthropod groups able to spit silk Phylum Tardigrada Water BearsMoss Bears Cryotobiosis all metabolic processes stop preventing further development can essentially live indefinitely until environmental conditions return to being favorable seen in space share features With arthropods and nematodes Phylum Athronoda jointed foot vast majority 8090 of diversity in here Insecta Characters bilaterally symmetrical paired jointed appendages hardened chitinous exoskeleton that needs to molt dorsal open circulatory system ventral nerva cord With ganglia CHECK FOR SYNAPOMORHPHIES Diplopoda millipedes burrowing herbivores apparent21egsbody segments segments are fused repeating burrow by bashing into organic layer round shape also have some wedge shapes found in soil feeding on decaying vegetation in the millions Chilopoda centipedes s0me 0f the most ancient organisms on the planet some of the very rst land colonizers apparent single pair of legsbody segment possess poison claws predatory legs are often of varying length across the body of the organism I less interference so you don t trip on yourself Chelicerata Identifying features Chelicerates have no mandible 2 body regions prosoma body and episosoma thorax Chelicera serves as mouthparts pincersfangs but often Will consume food in liquid form Pediphalps pincers serve as prey capture devices 4 pairs of legs 8 small ear pockets no antennae simple book gillslungs made up of very thin tissue layers absorb oxygen into bloodstream Adaptations liquid diet using venom fangs use of legs or pediphalps as sensory devices extensible cuticle chelicera mouthpart is adapted for attachment Segmentation 2 main body tagmata Prosoma anterior cephalothorax fused head thorax Acron very first presegment Opisthosoma posterior divided into metasoma posterior and mesosoma middle Merostomata Horseshoe Crabs largest populations found in DelawareChesapeake Bay region epicenter for spawning females usually lay 45 times each of 40005000 eggs as many as 20000 eggs eggs also a good food source for migratory birds Carapace hard large shell Telson tail Only members of Chelicera to have compound eyes Blue blood extracted Without causing death usually to be tested blue because oxygen carrier is Copper rather than Iron for bacterial sensitivity Living fossils have existed for over 500mi11ions years Arachnida Scorpions possess extreme segmentation telson modified into stinger kill prey with venom predigest it into liquid form and slurp it up relatively longlived have also been around for awhile at least 450million years radiate under UV radiation nocturnal hunters Pectines found on mouth comblike structures act as a broom about substrate tactile sensors Spider and PseudoscorDion have two easily distinguished regions Pseudoscorpion barking dogs of arthropods only several millimeters long usually found in leaf litter feed on vegetation or other smaller organisms able to overwinter Chelate pedipalps spin silk used to grab on to others and get around from silk glands on chelicerae p39d venom and silk Sn0w spider native local species found in groups of hundreds can be seen on snow Pedipalps used for delivering sperm large diversity jumping water crab and black widow spiders use silk for EVERYTHING maintain contact with home base prey capture protection reproduction has used same strategy for at least lOOmillion years many types of silk used by l spider in the same web spiders can have thousands of silk glands vary by size shape even color Aggregate Flagelliform Pyriform Aciniforms Spinerettes finger like protrusions for producing silks thousandths of millimeters thick twist several threads together to give it strength disproportion to size by comparison it is stronger than steel Water droplets cu i39ve silk in web ability to stretch and ex and prevent breaking altogether Stabilimentum see in orbweaving spider gt diagnostic for telling species apart by web design even have exotic mating dances see jumping spiders Opiliones dandy long legs apparent fusion of 2 body segments scent glands vegetarians not venomous but can be distasteful I cannot bite you clawed chelicerae stalked eyes Acari mites ticks mouth parts found out in front Gnathosome capitulum anteriormost part of mites Idiosome fusion of prosoma and opithosome microscopic to several millimetes Mite Life Cvcle Egg I Larvae I Protonymph Deutonymph IAdult Em Ticks I they are also mites extensible cuticle most common in NYS ladult deer ticks adult ticks seek medium to large mammalian hosts chelicerae With specialized hypostome palps used to adhere to animal and Will stick their hooks into you problem occurs once they ve attached to some other organism bird rodent to feed on blood Tips to prevent tick bites especially in early spring and midlate summer lightcolored clothes long sleeves and pant tuck pants into socks examine yourself when you get home don t ignore any tickles for ticks carry a number of different diseases great capability for transmission Hexapoda 6 legs thorax is 3 segmented Ilpro meso and metathoraX Collembola very small primitive molt throughout life Furca used for jumping springtail can catapult them 15cm into the air equivalent of a human jumping over the Eifel Tower Retinaculum used for recoiling water retention tens of thousands of these found 1 cm2 of soil 31016 Characteristics of adult insects 3 main body regions head thorax abdomen Entognathous mouthparts retract inside the head 3 pairs of 6 segmented jointed legs 2 pairs of Wings or Wing rudiments Ephemeropterg Mgv ies shortlivedwing 4 membranous Wings 23 circea forewings often large triangular hind wings more small and rounded Adult lifespan is about 1 day Males have turbinate eyes long forelegs only insects that Will molt subimago before reaching adult form can explode in huge numbers after emerging from water so large they can sometimes mark on Doppler radar I increase probability of successful mating feed mainly on detritus and algae comensals on mussels indicator of good water quality oldest living order of ying insects Odon l tooth Dragon ies d sel ies large eyes visual predators can migrate Wings have high level of venation dragon ies are the only organisms that can use all 4 Wings simultaneously in all different directions all life stages are predators NaLad j et propulsion modified ladium m pterothorax long legs found in the front not suited for walking can be used for snatching prey midair defending territory male guarding thermoregulation shiver Mating system male grabs female using pincers on underside of abdomen mating wheel can take several seconds up to an hour lay eggs underwater male keeps tail attached to back of F head laid in huge couples I tandems Orthoptera straightwing Grasshoppers locusts Crickets tree these are what you often hear at night mole house field crickets and Katydids can use mimicry musical insects seen in midlate summer also have powerful saltatorial legs for jumping herbivores can be human nuisance long welldeveloped sickle structure ovipositor many produce sound by stridulatingused by file and scraper rubbing together very quickly Phasmatodea gapparition or phantom Walkingsticks and Leaf Insects camou age and mimicry specialists re eXive bleeding regurgitation of guts Limb autotomy drop a limb Catalepsy play dead Rocking movements sway like leaves eggs with capitulum resembling an elaiosome World s longest insects mntodea Dronhet Mm mobile head only insect able to look over their shoulder lengthened prothoraX raptorial forelegs With grasping spines excellent predators also able to move quickly Will startle predators will eat just about anything females consume male will also eat their young and young may eat each other leathery tegmina thickened forewing most common species collected aren t native Hemiptera halfwing true bugs Cica ns Honners Aphids Scales Adelaids difficult to generalize largest group of insects that don t go through complete metamorphosis piercingsucking mouthparts feed mainly on liquids 3 groups distinguished partly by mouthpart placement Heteroptera hemelytra and scutellum beak 34 segments long forms a tube into feeding substrate also can be predatory beewasp coloration found around owers Bed bugs no Wings extensible cuticle Auchenorrhyncha cicadas tree hoppers adults have fully developed membranous Wings sound of summer hear in late July Early August some species emerge in adult form only once every 13 7years bugs With incredible morphological diversity and sound production some jumping plant hoppers use mechanical gear structure for leaping around Sternorrhyncha adelgids aphids herbivores pests difficult to control secrete White paste as a form of chemical resistance juveniles are the only mobile stage Once it finds a spot to feed on legs are lost and it will stay there until time for reproduction filter chamber used for removing excess water secrete sugar water ants use this as food source symbiosis Coleoptera she wing beetles weevils thickened forewings elytra very successful body plan chewing mandibles most herbivorous some predatory The Lord must have had an inordinate fondness for beetles Use of pheromones as chemical messengers ID establish turf bark beetles attract mates EX sugar maple borer can chew right through hard maple Diptera twowing true ies ies mosauitos mid2es Eng 2 membranous Wings hind wings are reduced to small knobby structures for gyroscopes halters tremendous morphological and reproductive diversity EX Crane Fly frequently act as pollinators mimicry Modes of Reproduction Will lay eggs on waste excrement carrion won t last forever need to get to work fast Ovoviviparity lay eggs almost ready to hatch Viviparity give birth to live young Pedogenesis immature insect ready to reproduce
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