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Physiology 215 Week 8 Lecture Notes

by: Maddie Butkus

Physiology 215 Week 8 Lecture Notes phys 215

Marketplace > Ball State University > phys 215 > Physiology 215 Week 8 Lecture Notes
Maddie Butkus
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About this Document

These notes cover the lecture from Wilkins on blood during week 8.
Human Physiology
Dr. Kelly-Worden
Class Notes
Physiology 215, Worden, notes, Week 8
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddie Butkus on Friday March 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to phys 215 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Kelly-Worden in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views.


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Date Created: 03/11/16
• Blood • Role of Blood – Maintains balance (homeostasis) of the body – Transports material to and from cells – Buffers changes in pH – Carries excess heat to the body surface – Plays a role in the defense system – Minimizes blood loss • Blood Components – Plasma – fluid 50-55% of blood – Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes) – White Blood Cells (leukocytes) – Platelets ‘thrombocytes’ (hemostasis; stops bleeding) • Fig. 19.2(TE Art) • Plasma – Carries heat – Electrolytes (ions) – Nutrients (glucose, amino acids, lipids & vitamins) – Waste products (creatine, bilirubin, urea) – Dissolved gases (O and2Co ) 2 – Hormones – Plasma proteins • Albumin- transports solutes and buffers pH • Globulins (, , γ)- play roles in transport, clotting and immunity • Fibrinogin- precursor for fibrin involved in blood clotting • Red Blood Cells – 5 billion per cubic millimeter • Wilkins says 1million per cubic millimeter – Flat, disk like, indented in the middle • Shape provides a greater surface area for diffusion • Thinness increases speed of diffusion • Fig. 19.3a(TE Art) – Hemoglobin – Globin protein and 4 peptide chains – Heme- 4 iron molecules, each binding a single oxygen • Binds: • CO2 transport back to the lungs • H+ buffer • CO binds tighter than oxygen • NO • Fig. 19.5a(TE Art) • Formation of Red Blood Cells – Erythropoiesis – kicked out by kidney to gain more oxygen – Formed from a pluripotent stem cell that differentiates into a colony forming erythrocyte – As an RBC matures, it loses its organelles including its nucleus – Rely on glycolysis for ATP formation • Fig. 19.6(TE Art) • Types of Anemia (reduction of the O2 carrying capacity of the blood) – Nutritional anemia- lack of a factor needed for erythropoiesis e.g. iron – Pernicious anemia- lack of intrinsic factor, needed to bind vitamin B-12 for absorption – Aplastic anemia- failure of bone marrow to produce adequate amount of RBCs – Renal anemia- consequence of kidney disease, decrease in erythropoietin – Hemorrhagic anemia- extensive blood loss – Hemolytic anemia- rupture of RBCs e.g. sickle cell anemia • Sickle Cell Anemia – Hereditary hemoglobin defect – Occurs mostly among Africans and individuals of African decent – Beneficial in protecting against malaria, but the sickle cells cannot supply adequate oxygen to the tissues, are sticky and fragile. – May cause blood clots leading to stroke, paralysis, heart and kidney failure and early death. • Fig. 19.13 – Hemoglobin – Carries gases in the blood – Contains 4 globulins and one heme group per globulin – Heme has a ferrous iron in the middle which binds oxygen • Blood Types – Inherited, determined by the present of antigens – Type A- have A antigens – Type B- have B antigens – Type AB- have A and B antigens – Type O- have no antigen – Rh factor- determines whether the blood is positive (Rh factor present) or negative (Rh factor missing) • Universal donor- Type O has no antigens and thus, can donate to all others without fear of rejection based on type • Universal acceptor- Type AB can accept blood of any type since they possess both A and B type antigens • Formation of White Blood Cells – Also form from the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into colony forming cells – Involved in the immune response – Granulocytes- contain organelles • Neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils • Agranulocytes- few or no organelles • Lymphocytes and monocytes • Fig. 19.9(TE Art) • Eosinophils – Large two lobed nucleus connect by a thin strand – Abundant granules – 2-4% of WBCs – Involved in allergies, parasitic infection, collagen diseases and diseases of the spleen and CNS • Fig. 19.p549b • Basophils – U or S shaped nucleus hidden by granules – Secretes two chemicals • Histamine (vasodilator) • Heparin (anticoagulant) • Less than 0.5% - 1% of WBCs • Fig. 19.p550a • Neutrophils – 3 to 5 nuclear lobes (polymorphonuclear) connected by a thin strand – Fine granules – Bacterial infection • Phagocytosis and digestion • Chemical toxins (hypochlorite and superoxide anion which forms hydrogen peroxide) • 60% - 70% of WBCs • Fig. 19.p549a • Monocyte – Largest WBCs – Large kidney-shaped nucleus – Only a few fine granules – Count increases during inflammation and viral infection – Transform into macrophages (phagocytes) – 3% - 8% of WBCs • Fig. 19.p550b • Lymphocyte – Smallest WBCs – Round nucleus, most of the cell – Responds to infection and immune response – T-cells – fight infection directly – B- cells – differentiate into antibody secreting cells (plasma cells) • Fig. 19.p550c • Hemostasis • Arrest of blood – 3 steps: • Vascular spasm • Formation of a platlet plug • Blood coagulation • Vascular Spasm – Sympathetically induced vasoconstriction – Cannot completely prevent further blood loss • Formation of a Platelet Plug – Broken blood vessels • Exposure to collagen • Binding of platelets • Release of ADP from platelets • Binding of more platelets • Release of prostacyclin and nitric oxide from adjacent endothelium • Prevents platelet binding to adjacent tissue • Contraction of platelet (actin and myosin) • Release of vasoconstrictors • The Clotting Cascade • What is a Bruise? – Deoxygenated blood trapped within the tissue – Bruises are cleared and clots dissolved by plasmin • Produced by the liver as plasminogen • Activated to plasmin by factor XII and some others • Phagocytic white blood cells also aid in removal • Blood Clotting Problems – Thromboembolism • Abnormal clotting • To a vessel wall; thrombus • Free floating; emboli • Hemophilia • Excessive bleeding as a result of clotting factor deficiency (80% lack of factor VIII) • Vitamin K deficiency • Combines with oxygen, releasing free energy used to activate the clotting cascade


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