Social Psych - Chapter 9 Prejudice
Social Psych - Chapter 9 Prejudice Psych 3430-02
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Date Created: 03/11/16
Stereotyping, Prejudice and Discrimination 3/3/16 Definitions Stereotype = belief about the personal attributes of a group of people - Lead us to believe that group differences are larger than they are Prejudice = negative (or positive) feelings towards a person based on their membership in a group Discrimination = unjustified behavior towards a group or its members Stereotypes Effort saving generalizations hat help us organize information - Help us to take all the information in that we get and organize it and separate it into groups - Beliefs can be positive or negative - Similar to heuristics, helps us to remember things and easily access information Positive Stereotypes - Americans are hard working - Asians are good at math - Black people are athletic and musical - Issues with positive stereotypes: • Can exaggerate things that aren’t true for everyone in each group • Set up unrealistic expectations – people may think they are disappointing the group • Endorsing positive stereotypes is related to negative stereotypes Positive stereotype study - Asked participants how much they agreed with positive stereotypes about black people - The more participants endorsed the positive stereotypes, the more they endorsed the negative stereotypes as well - Shows that peoples idea of stereotypes are related Negative Stereotypes - Americans love guns - Fat people are lazy - Immigrants are criminals - Issues with negative stereotypes: • Generalize a whole group, even though there are exceptions in every group • Often stems from something true, but doesn’t apply to everyone • Makes in group differences much smaller than they actually are Why do we rely on stereotypes? - Tend to be cognitive misers • Not concerned whether things are accurate, just want to absorb information - Help us to form impressions quickly, makes us feel like we know something more about a person - Allow us to use past experiences to guide interactions - They are easy to remember and are well-learned (most stereotypes have been around for a while so have been ingrained in us, whether we realize it or not) Study - Woman discussed her lifestyle in a video - Participants were told that she was either a hair dresser or a doctor, and the video showed behaviors that were consistent with both careers (the control group just watched the video) - Researchers were interested in whether people would remember consistent or inconsistent stereotypes - There was a distraction condition where some participants were told to remember a number while they watched the video - Results showed that the control group remembered stereotype inconsistent information, while the distracted group remembered stereotype consistent information What’s the problem with stereotypes? - Exaggerate group differences – overlooks variability within a group - Perceive out-groups as being more similar than in-groups • Tend to link all Spanish speaking people as Latinos, but Spanish speaking people identify themselves as different based on the country that they are from in Latin America - Let them guide our perception • May lead us to see what we want to see in a person Basketball game study - Participants listened to a tape of a college basketball game - They were asked to focus on one player and how he did - Participants were given information on the player • Were either told that he was white or black, but all the other information was the same - Told to evaluate the performance of the player - Results found that when participants thought the player was white, they said he played with intelligence, and when they thought the player was white, they said he was athletic When are we likely to use stereotypes? - Time constraints - If we are tired, distracted - Mentally busy - Emotionally aroused (feel threatened or fearful) Prejudice - Occurs in most places - Overt prejudice and in group conflict is prevalent all over the world • Israel and Palestine • North and South Korea • Civil wars in Syria and Libya - Tends to be a hierarchy, conflict, and prejudice in every society - Overt prejudice has been on the decline in the US • Treatment has improved for women, African Americans, homosexual people, and other groups • However, this doesn’t mean that all groups are equal and there is no prejudice Racial Discrimination Study - Asked people to judge how much racial discrimination exists in America - Results found that white people compare the amount of discrimination to the past • Compared to times of slavery, Jim Crowe laws • Conclude that there is less prejudice now - Results found that black people compare the amount of discrimination to the future • Compare to an ideal world with no discrimination • Conclude that there is still a lot of prejudice Google Research - Uses google data to research human behavior by looking at google searches - Helpful because people are willing to type things that they wouldn’t tell people normally Overt Prejudice Study – Google - Investigated how google searches relate to crimes against Muslims - After the attack in California by a Muslim man, there was a spike in the amount of people searching for terms like ‘Muslim Terrorist’ and ‘kill Muslims’ - Found that the number of anti-Muslim searches are strong predictor of number of crimes against Muslims - Study demonstrates correlation, not causation Subtle Prejudice Study – Google - Investigated how racial prejudice cost Obama votes during the 2008 election - Looked at the number of negative search terms in different areas, and ranked the areas based on the number of racist searches - Found that West Virginia, Upstate New York, Southern Mississippi and East Ohio had the highest number of racially charged searches - Study examined whether Obama got less of a vote in those areas - Results found that where there was a high number of racially charged searches, it predicted where Obama received less of the vote (found that Obama suffered between 3 and 7 points as a result of this subtle racism) Subtle Prejudice Study - Participants met someone who they thought was a participant (but they were a researcher) who was either white or black - Told they would work over a task over an intercom in separate rooms • Group 1 – told that they were the only ones on the intercom • Group 2 – told that there were other people who could hear the intercom - Participant heard a scream, and researchers wanted to see if people would go to see if the other person (researcher) was okay - Results • People who thought they were alone (group 1) were equally likely to check on the person, regardless of if they were white or black • People who thought they were with a group (group 2) were less likely to check on the person if they were black à demonstrates diffusion of responsibility Prejudice – Explicit and Implicit - Explicit = attitudes that people can consciously report on - Implicit = attitudes were hold but don’t consciously endorse, or aren’t aware of - Implicit association test • Measures response time on categorizing words • Categories were female and family, and male and career, and then switched to be female and career, and male and family • Shows how people categorize things and how easy it is for people to see similarities • Results show that people have faster reaction times when the categories are female and category, and male and career - Implicit bias – when there are more people from other groups, implicit bias is higher Where does prejudice come from? - Socialization • Media • Family – children’s attitudes are often related to parent’s amount of explicit prejudice • Social norms and conformity – based on what other people are doing - Competition • Realistic group conflict theory = if groups are competing over limited resources, it will lead to prejudice • Eg. Getting into college, territory, immigration (immigrants take jobs, so people see them as threatening) - Need for self-esteem • Social identity theory = self-concept and self-esteem is based on group membership Minimal groups paradigm Study - People are shown a screen full of dots and asked to estimate how many dots there are - Participants are either told they are in a group of over estimators or in a group of under estimators - Participants are then asked to complete a second phase, which is allocating resources between their group and the out group (other group, based on what group they were told they were in) - The options were: • Award out group 5 points, in group 4 points • Award out group 12 points, in group 10 points • Award out group 2 points, in group 3 points - Results found that people were more likely to award their own group more points, even though that option gave them less points over all - Results are important because the participants had never identified as the group that they were placed in, but still felt a bias towards the in group and prejudice towards the out group Basking in Reflected Glory Study - People want to associate with winning teams - Looked to see how many students wore their school t-shirts after the group won – more people wore shirts after they won than when they lost - Asked people the results of the game • Found that if the team won, people say “we won” • If the team lost, people say “they lost” Discrimination = negative behavior towards a group or its members - Hate crimes against Muslims, not voting for Obama because he’s African American - Happens in the housing market in New Orleans • researchers sent 1 white person and 1 black person to look at houses, and had them contact different realtors in different neighborhoods • both people had the exact same qualifications • Results found that 44% of the time, the black person was mistreated (the agent didn’t show up, times were messed up, ignored the call) Prejudice 3/8/16 - Personality plays a role • Social dominance orientation – personality variable that leads people to like hierarchy - Out group homogeneity effect = see our own group as diverse, and see other groups as similar Motivation to avoid prejudice - Internal motivation – people may have values that tell them not to be prejudice (motivated by individual beliefs) - External motivation – people may think other people will punish them if they are prejudice (motivated by external forces) - Why is the source of motivation important? • Internal and external motivation elicit different behavior • Internally motivated people will show less prejudice even in subtle ways Contact Hypothesis = under certain conditions, direct contact between hostile groups will reduce prejudice - Status - groups need to be interacting as if they are of equal status (students interacting with other students, not students interacting with teachers) - Personal interaction – have to talk to the person, can’t just be near them or in the same situation - Cooperative activities – members of a group have to share a similar goal - Social norms – have to have social norms that say that prejudice is wrong Support of the Contact Hypothesis Theory - Used meta-analysis to look at studies conducted around the world (involving over 250,000 people from 38 countries) à found support for the hypothesis - Looked at the effect on majority and minority groups • contact theory less effective for improving attitudes of minorities • generalizes beyond racial and ethnic groups à heterosexual people with more contact with homosexual people are less prejudice towards homosexuals • generalizes beyond specific person you are in contact with • generalizes beyond specific group à reducing prejudice towards African Americans can also reduce prejudice towards other groups, such as Hispanic people) • generalizes to indirect contact à extended contact hypothesis = knowing somebody who knows a member of the out group can reduce prejudice (includes imagined contact) How does contact work? - Cognitive route – greater knowledge • More contact may disconfirm stereotypes, but it is hard to do this • May create subtype – think that person is an exception to the rule, and still think that the stereotypes about the rest of the group are true • May create subgroup – create another, smaller group of people who are all subtypes, but still think that the stereotypes apply to the rest of the larger group • Most likely to reduce stereotypes if we see people as a typical group member rather than an exception - Emotional route – reduced anxiety • Contact creates empathy, feelings of compassion and concern à the more we know, the more empathetic we feel Shelton and Richardson Study - Examined fear of rejection by white and black students - Asked students to imagine a scenario where they walk into the cafeteria and there are only students of the other race, would they sit with those students? - Both white and black students said they would, but they would be worried that the group wouldn’t like them - If they knew they wouldn’t be rejected, they would be more likely to sit with them Reducing Prejudice - Superordinate goals = a shared goal that necessitates cooperative effort (goal that members of different groups share) - Jigsaw classroom – Elliot Aronson • Create diverse groups with around 6 members in each group • Assign the group a project, where each member has to become an expert in a specific area • Found that this can reduce prejudice à after this activity, children hung out with members of other groups in the playground Reducing Bias - De-categorization = work to see people as unique individuals • Can be effective to reduce bias against an individual • Doesn’t work if people feel that their group membership is important so they don’t want to be seen as an individual - Re-categorization = put someone in a different group • Can be effective if they are categorized into a group where you are also a member à common in group identity model Garther and Dovidio Study - Had black researchers go up to white people either wearing their school hat or a rival school hat - Found black people who were wearing the school hat were treated better by the white person than if they were wearing the rival school hat Van Bavel and Cunningham Study - Found that re-categorizing out group faces as in group faces can prevent amygdala activation (amygdala is the area in the brain associated with fear, and the fight or flight system) - White Americans show amygdala activation when they see pictures of African Americans à recategorization reduced brain activity when they categorized then as Americans, and didn’t categorize based on skin Consequences of Prejudice - Direct effects • Can reduce access to education, health care, safe housing, opportunities • Overt hostility or violence • Targets can be unaware that they are targeted because of prejudice (if someone doesn’t get a job, they are unaware of whether it is because they weren’t qualified or because they are a certain race) - Indirect effects • Psychological effects – attributed ambiguity = when people are not sure what to attribute a situation to • Implications for health, academic achievement, employment, wealth etc. Institutional Biases - Biases embedded in policies • Pennsylvania spends more money per student at majority white schools than majority black schools - Racism 1. An individuals prejudiced attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given race 2. Institutional practices that subordinate people of a given race (even if it wasn’t motivated by prejudice) - Other isms (sexism, heterosexism, ageism, ableism, fatism) Dimensions of Stigma – Jones - Stigma = when someone is socially devalued because of group membership and group characteristics • Depending on where the group fits on the dimensions of stigma, it will change how people act towards them - Concealability – is the condition hidden or obvious? To what extent is its visibility controllable? • Eg. mental illness - Controllability/origin – how did you get the condition? Was someone responsible? Do people think it is controllable? • Eg. Anorexia, obesity - Course – does it change over time? What is the ultimate outcome? • Eg. Cancer - Disruptiveness – does it block interaction and communication? • Eg. Deafness, physical disability, stutter - Aesthetic qualities – to what extent does the mark make the person ugly, scary looking, upsetting? • Eg. Facial alterations, burn victims - Peril – what kind of danger is posed by the difference, and how serious is it? • Eg. HIV status Preconditions of Stigma - Awareness of the devalued quality of ones social identity - Experience with prejudice and discrimination - Attributional ambiguity - Stereotype threat = the experience of anxiety when there is a negative stereotype about your group • Women in STEM fields • Minorities with standardized testing • White people seen as racist - Stereotype boost = enhanced performance due to positive stereptypes Performance and Stereotype Threat Study – Spencer and Colleagues - Had participants take a math test, either told them that there were no differences in results between males and females, or told them nothing (control group) - Results found that when participants were told nothing, women did worse - When participants were told that there weren’t gender differences, women performed better on the test - Results demonstrate effects of stereotype threat