Week 9 Notes ANTH 102
Week 9 Notes ANTH 102 ANTH 102
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This 35 page Class Notes was uploaded by vscobee2 on Friday March 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 102 at University of Illinois at Chicago taught by Rory Dennison in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 122 views. For similar materials see Intro to Archaeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Illinois at Chicago.
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Date Created: 03/11/16
Week 9 Domestication in North America Spread of maize: o S. America, N. America by 1000BC o SW North America by 2100BC o Eastern Woodlands by 200BC American SW: o Rio Nuevo (2100BC) Pit houses, pottery, maize o Las Capas (1200800BC) Canals, larger and more permanent sites o Santa Cruz Bend (600BC) o Hohokam (11450AD) Eastern Woodlands: o Mobile foragers o 25001500BC = goosefoot, marsh elder, sunflower o 2500BC = squash as a separate domestication event o Paleoindian (1150010000BP) – hunter gatherers o Archaic (80001000BC) – hunter gatherers, native cultigens o Woodland (1000BC1000AD) – introduction of maize o Mississippian (10001539AD) – intensive maize farming Consequences of food production: o Population growth: Sedentism Surpluses Fertility, birth spacing, weaning, child labor o Organization: Leadership and social hierarchies Surplus accumulation and inequalities Increased workloads Attractive resources for enemies Danger of overemphasis of a smaller number of food sources Social political organization after permanent villages created Political organization By Morton H. Fried Types of organizations are egalitarian, ranked, stratified, or state Egalitarian: o Few status differences if based on a combination of skills, age, and gender o Production done at the household level o No formal leadership o Few material goods o Small groups o Foraging life Ranked: o Fewer prestige positions o Differences in material positions o Prestige linked to skill, abilities, achieved status o High status persons such as big men and chiefs Stratified: o No equal access to resources o Access dependent on prestige o Positions limited o More exploitation of labor (slavery) o Communities – different households, kin groups o Diseases Infectious – syphilis, tuberculosis Metabolic – rickets, scurvy Degenerative – arthritis Agriculture caused by climate change, demographic pressure, risk mitigation, technological advances SocioPolitical Complexity Anthropological Perspective o Typology of Sociopolitical Evolution by Elman Service in 1962 o Evolutionary rank, sequence of cultural stages Bands » Tribes » Chiefdoms » States Simple »»»»»»»»»»»»»»» Complex In reality, organizations are not so simply categorized, they are more complex and fall on a continuum These are helpful to understand the basics of organizations Bands: o During Pleistocene o Small groups of foragers (<100 people) o Kingroups – from one descent group o Egalitarian – no social classes o No permanent leadership – had a headman Based on abilities, age, experience, etc. Position isn’t elected or born into – based on achieved status Can’t tell people what to do, but people listen to their suggestions (minimal leadership) Respected Tribes: o During Holocene o A little less egalitarian o Larger populations Villages of several hundred Multiple villages organize for war or ceremonies o May control a large territory o Foragers or food producers o No formalized leadership – had a bigman Like a headman – position based on age, experience, etc. Often maintains power through generosity – giving things away (need a surplus first); competitive feasts Lead by example Power to convince, not coerce (force) People can shift allegiance without repercussion Constant competition for position of bigman Chiefdoms: o Smallscale agricultural societies o Even larger populations (up to 10,000) o May control large territory o Position of Chief institutionalized (centralized power) Full time administrator Generally inherited (ascribed status) Often claim supernatural power – descended from deity, can communicate with deity, etc. o Chief had 2 primary roles Redistribution of goods (from surpluses) Organize people for war or labor projects – labor for less communal projects and more projects that only served chief (mounds) o Beginnings of coercive power (forcing people to do things) But chiefs were dependent on being charismatic Chiefdoms unstable o Nonegalitarian o Kinship o Permanent leadership o Associated with agricultural pursuits (need surpluses to redistribute) o Chief negotiated trading with other groups – alliance shows power; chiefs use foreign goods as gifts (generosity) o Example: Cahokia Site States: o Complex agricultural societies o Large population o Fixed social classes and stratification – economic classes with some individual mobility o Occupational specialization – people did only one specific job (baker, pottery maker, etc.) o Defined boundaries – kept people in and out o Institutionalized legal system (judges/courts) o Military (external force) and police (internal force) Coercive power Force Cultural control: how the state convinces people the government/laws are right and good for everyone o Centralized leadership Leader often perceived as a deity Leader supremely powerful – can demand extra surplus, taxes, goods Taxes Bureaucracy Sociopolitical Differences o Uncentralized (bands/tribes) Use influence Consensus decisions Egalitarian Reciprocity/gifts o Centralized (chiefdoms/states) Use power Centralized Stratification Redistribution/market o Bands/Tribes = low population, kinship, achieved/nonpermanent leadership o States = stratification, administrative governments, large population, can include bands/tribes Civilization: o V. Gordon Childe defined 10 characteristics of civilization o 1. Cities – hierarchy of different interconnected settlement structures o 2. Full Time Labor Specialization – people doing only one specific job o 3. Control Specific Territory – boundaries/borders o 4. Class Stratification (including a ruling class at the top) o 5. Concentration of Surplus o 6. Monumental Public Works o 7. LongDistance Exchange o 8. Writing o 9. Arithmetic, Astronomy, Geometry o 10. Highly Developed, Standardized Artwork States Continued: o Defined Boundaries Can be physical or arbitrary Define an “us” and “them” Mainly used to keep people inside so that people invest in the state Ex. The Great Wall of China – actually meant as a border marker to keep (highly skilled) people from leaving o Centralized Leadership Authority Leaders get status/power from their position They can tell people what to do because of their position Bureaucracy Institutionalized network of this authority Power loaned out from leader – responsibilities delegated to subordinates o Fixed Social Classes Influenced by and determines status/wealth Dictated access to resources Minimal movement between classes Expressed with the social pyramid o Occupational Specialization Administrators Priests Astronomers/great thinkers Warriors Craft specialists o Leadership Permanent Has power Seen as or connected to a deity o Bureaucracy Institutionalized leader system Multiple levels of decisionmaking specialists who act between ruler and common people Work delegated Doing » managing » leading