New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Week 9 Notes ANTH 102

by: vscobee2

Week 9 Notes ANTH 102 ANTH 102


Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover Week 9 material - Domestication in North America and Socio-Political Complexity.
Intro to Archaeology
Rory Dennison
Class Notes
Anthropology, archeology
25 ?




Popular in Intro to Archaeology

Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr

This 35 page Class Notes was uploaded by vscobee2 on Friday March 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 102 at University of Illinois at Chicago taught by Rory Dennison in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 122 views. For similar materials see Intro to Archaeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Illinois at Chicago.

Similar to ANTH 102 at UIC

Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr


Reviews for Week 9 Notes ANTH 102


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/11/16
Week 9 Domestication in North America  Spread of maize: o S. America, N. America by 1000BC o SW North America by 2100BC o Eastern Woodlands by 200BC  American SW: o Rio Nuevo (2100BC)  Pit houses, pottery, maize o Las Capas (1200­800BC)  Canals, larger and more permanent sites o Santa Cruz Bend (600BC) o Hohokam (1­1450AD)  Eastern Woodlands: o Mobile foragers o 2500­1500BC = goosefoot, marsh elder, sunflower o 2500BC = squash as a separate domestication event o Paleoindian (11500­10000BP) – hunter gatherers o Archaic (8000­1000BC) – hunter gatherers, native cultigens o Woodland (1000BC­1000AD) – introduction of maize o Mississippian (1000­1539AD) – intensive maize farming  Consequences of food production: o Population growth:  Sedentism  Surpluses  Fertility, birth spacing, weaning, child labor o Organization:  Leadership and social hierarchies  Surplus accumulation and inequalities  Increased workloads  Attractive resources for enemies  Danger of overemphasis of a smaller number of food sources  Social political organization after permanent villages created  Political organization   By Morton H. Fried  Types of organizations are egalitarian, ranked, stratified, or state  Egalitarian:  o Few status differences if based on a combination of skills,  age, and gender o Production done at the household level o No formal leadership o Few material goods o Small groups o Foraging life  Ranked:  o Fewer prestige positions o Differences in material positions o Prestige  linked to skill, abilities, achieved status o High status persons such as big men and chiefs  Stratified: o No equal access to resources o Access dependent on prestige o Positions limited o More exploitation of labor (slavery) o Communities – different households, kin groups o Diseases  Infectious – syphilis, tuberculosis  Metabolic – rickets, scurvy  Degenerative – arthritis  Agriculture caused by climate change, demographic pressure, risk mitigation,  technological advances  Socio­Political Complexity  Anthropological Perspective o Typology of Sociopolitical Evolution by Elman Service in 1962 o Evolutionary rank, sequence of cultural stages  Bands » Tribes » Chiefdoms » States  Simple »»»»»»»»»»»»»»» Complex  In reality, organizations are not so simply categorized, they are more  complex and fall on a continuum  These are helpful to understand the basics of organizations  Bands: o During Pleistocene o Small groups of foragers (<100 people) o Kingroups – from one descent group o Egalitarian – no social classes o No permanent leadership – had a headman  Based on abilities, age, experience, etc.  Position isn’t elected or born into – based on achieved status  Can’t tell people what to do, but people listen to their suggestions  (minimal leadership)  Respected  Tribes: o During Holocene o A little less egalitarian o Larger populations  Villages of several hundred  Multiple villages organize for war or ceremonies  o May control a large territory o Foragers or food producers o No formalized leadership – had a bigman  Like a headman – position based on age, experience, etc.  Often maintains power through generosity – giving things away (need  a surplus first); competitive feasts  Lead by example  Power to convince, not coerce (force)  People can shift allegiance without repercussion  Constant competition for position of bigman  Chiefdoms: o Small­scale agricultural societies o Even larger populations (up to 10,000) o May control large territory o Position of Chief institutionalized (centralized power)  Full time administrator  Generally inherited (ascribed status)  Often claim supernatural power – descended from deity, can  communicate with deity, etc. o Chief had 2 primary roles  Redistribution of goods (from surpluses)  Organize people for war or labor projects – labor for less communal  projects and more projects that only served chief (mounds) o Beginnings of coercive power (forcing people to do things)  But chiefs were dependent on being charismatic  Chiefdoms unstable o Non­egalitarian o Kinship o Permanent leadership o Associated with agricultural pursuits (need surpluses to redistribute) o Chief negotiated trading with other groups – alliance shows power; chiefs use  foreign goods as gifts (generosity) o Example: Cahokia Site  States: o Complex agricultural societies o Large population o Fixed social classes and stratification – economic classes with some individual mobility o Occupational specialization – people did only one specific job (baker, pottery  maker, etc.) o Defined boundaries – kept people in and out o Institutionalized legal system (judges/courts) o Military (external force) and police (internal force)  Coercive power  Force  Cultural control: how the state convinces people the government/laws  are right and good for everyone o Centralized leadership  Leader often perceived as a deity  Leader supremely powerful – can demand extra surplus, taxes, goods  Taxes  Bureaucracy  Sociopolitical Differences o Uncentralized (bands/tribes)  Use influence  Consensus decisions  Egalitarian  Reciprocity/gifts o Centralized (chiefdoms/states)  Use power  Centralized  Stratification  Redistribution/market o Bands/Tribes = low population, kinship, achieved/non­permanent leadership o States = stratification, administrative governments, large population, can  include bands/tribes  Civilization: o V. Gordon Childe defined 10 characteristics of civilization o 1. Cities – hierarchy of different interconnected settlement structures o 2. Full Time Labor Specialization – people doing only one specific job o 3. Control Specific Territory – boundaries/borders o 4. Class Stratification (including a ruling class at the top) o 5. Concentration of Surplus o 6. Monumental Public Works o 7. Long­Distance Exchange o 8. Writing o 9. Arithmetic, Astronomy, Geometry o 10. Highly Developed, Standardized Artwork  States Continued: o Defined Boundaries  Can be physical or arbitrary  Define an “us” and “them”  Mainly used to keep people inside so that people invest in the state  Ex. The Great Wall of China – actually meant as a border  marker to keep (highly skilled) people from leaving o Centralized Leadership  Authority  Leaders get status/power from their position  They can tell people what to do because of their position  Bureaucracy  Institutionalized network of this authority  Power loaned out from leader – responsibilities delegated to  subordinates o Fixed Social Classes  Influenced by and determines status/wealth  Dictated access to resources  Minimal movement between classes  Expressed with the social pyramid o Occupational Specialization  Administrators  Priests  Astronomers/great thinkers  Warriors  Craft specialists o Leadership  Permanent  Has power  Seen as or connected to a deity o Bureaucracy  Institutionalized leader system  Multiple levels of decision­making specialists who act between ruler  and common people  Work delegated  Doing » managing » leading


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.