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by: Regan Dougherty
Regan Dougherty
GPA 4.0

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Food Science
Dr. Crowe
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan Dougherty on Friday March 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NHM 253 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Crowe in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Food Science in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 03/11/16
Thursday, January 21, 2016 BSC 215 Lecture 3 - Matter - anything that occupies space and has mass • States of Matter - Solid - defined shape and volume - Liquid - undefined shape, defined volume - Gas - undefined shape and volume • Matter is made up of atoms. - Atoms • (Usually) consist of: - Protons • weigh 1 AMU (atomic mass units) • charge: + - Neutrons • weigh 1 AMU • no charge - Electrons • no significant weight • charge: - • Atomic number = the number of protons • Atomic mass = number of protons + number of neutrons • Atoms are usually electrically neutral (number of protons = number of electrons). • The electrons in the valence shell are important because those are the electrons involved in a chemical reaction. - Element - simplest form of matter to have unique chemical properties 1 Thursday, January 21, 2016 • An element is any substance made up of only one kind of atom. • Protons have the same properties in any atom. Electrons have the same properties in any atom. Neutrons have the same properties in any atom. • 4 most abundant elements found in living things: oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen • The most prevalent kind of bond in the body is a covalent bond. • Ion - a charged atom (different number of protons and electrons) - Isotopes - atoms (of the same element) that differ only in the number of neutrons (and, consequently, in mass) • Atomic weight - weighted average mass over all known isotopes of an element • Isotopes chemically behave the same way. • Radioisotopes (unstable isotopes) decay over time. - This process is called radiation. - The process of radioactive decay involves the emission of particles from the nucleus of an atom. • Low penetrance - Lower energy, do not travel far - Alpha particle (ɑ) - 2 protons and 2 neutrons • results in change in atomic number and atomic mass - Beta particle (β) - electron • High penetrance - Gamma ray (????) - high energy photon - All radioisotopes can produce dangerous ions and free radicals. - Two ways to combine matter: • Mixtures - different atoms combined retain their unique chemical properties and can be physically separated - Suspensions - solids suspended in a liquid 2 Thursday, January 21, 2016 • You can see the solid matter in a suspension; they will eventually settle down to the bottom due to gravity. • Ex. blood - Colloids - solids suspended in a liquid • Difference from suspension: the solids are smaller and will never settle • Ex. milk - Solutions - one thing is dissolved in another • The dissolved molecules will never settle. • Ex. glucose and water • Solute - what is dissolved Solvent - what the solute is dissolved in • • Chemical bonds - different atoms combined have new chemical properties and the resulting molecules can only separated chemically - Ionic bonds - transfer of electrons between atoms and the atoms are attracted to each other (because of their opposite charges) - Covalent bonds - formed when 2 atoms share electrons • Non-polar covalent bonds - equal sharing of electrons • Polar covalent bonds - unequal sharing of electrons - Hydrogen bonds - attractions between polar molecules (The positive side of one atom attracts the negative side of another.) - Van der Waals forces - brief attractions between temporarily polar molecules (depending on electron activity/location) - The valence shell determines chemical reactivity. • Some atoms are chemically reactive and some are not. • Octet rule - An atom is most stable when its valence shell contains 8 electrons - Duet rule - for smaller atoms, they are most stable when they have 2 valence electrons • Ex. helium is stable when it has 2 valence electrons. 3 Thursday, January 21, 2016 • Ex. Hydrogen only has one valence electron and wants two valence electrons, so it is more likely to interact with another atom to become stable. • Ex. Carbon has 4 valence electrons so it can share electrons/form bonds with 4 other atoms (to reach a total of 8 valence electrons). - Ions - charged particles • Unequal number of protons and electrons • Ionization - Atoms with < 4 valence electrons tend to give electrons up. • They form cations (positively charged ions). - Atoms with > 3 and < 8 valence electrons tend to gain electrons. • They form anions (negatively charged ions). - Electrolytes - substances that ionize in water (can conduct electricity) 4


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