All notes for Exam 1
All notes for Exam 1 CLDP 3362.001
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Yesenia Notetaker on Friday March 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CLDP 3362.001 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Dr. Candice Mills in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 139 views.
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Date Created: 03/11/16
Cognitive Development 1/11/2016 What is Cognitive Development What is Cognitive Development? How children think about the world, and how that changes over the course of development Six questions are some capabilities innate? Associationist (Locke) No - mind is a "blank slate" Constructivist (Piaget) Yes, a little Competent-infant (Spelke) Yes, a lot Infants are born with a wide range of perceptual/conceptual understandings Born with some learning mechanisms (imitation, statistical learning) ANSWER Yes, some capabilities are innate But lots of research needed to figure out the details Does development progress through stages? if stagelike development Qualitative change (time A is very different from time B) Occurs simultaneously for many concepts if continuous development Happens more gradually Changes vary depending on the concept How does change occur? Assimilation Representing experiences in terms of existing knowledge Accommodation Understanding altered by new information Automatization When a mental process requires less attention, making new thinking easier Domain General vs. Domain Specific How do individuals differ? Children differ in many ways (age of first word, if imaginary friends) How do changes in brain contribute to cognitive development? Brain gets BIGGER over development Brain structures change over development changes in neurons Synaptogenesis - formation of connections in the brain Overproduction and then pruning Can develop new connections as adults, but early development is important How does the social world contribute to cognitive development? Social interaction and culture impact how children think Scaffolding structuring how children think 1/13/2016 Introduction and Measurement Introduction and Measurement Psychology as Pseudoscience? sometimes have own theories sometimes rely on anecdotal evidence sometimes easily persuaded Clever Hans Baby Mozart sometimes view Psychology as "easy" can have consequences (expert testimony not needed) given that psychology research is often misportrayed, how can we be critical consumers of scientific research? identify the source primary source - person reporting research has personally conducted it. o psychology journals secondary source - refers to the research of others o newspapers, radio, textbooks, lectures be aware of the author's motive read to understand the research & evidence identify the main points identify and carefully consider the research evidence o citations? nonscientific evidence? expert testimony? be aware of misleading language/propaganda techniques evaluate the research evidence reliability - repeated and consistent validity - measures what it claims to be testing T.V. and Toddlers American Academy of Pediatrics recommend no television for children under 2 VS media implies that videos can provide enhanced learning opportunities for infants and toddlers "babies actually learned six to eight fewer words for each hour per day spent watching tv" Research Christakis (2007) each hour of viewing baby DVDs related to lower communication cores for 8 to 16 month olds results less clear for 17 to 24 month olds (2009) digital recorder study each hour of television associated with reduction in how much the child spoke and how much the child was spoken to "a definite link between infant television watching and ADHD by the age of 7" (2004) TV viewing hours between the ages of 1 and 3 associated with attention problems at age 7 Li & Atkins (2004) for preschool children in Head Start, children with access to a computer performes better on measures of school readiness, controlling for SES T.V. use outcomes = complex issue Child Age cognitive abilities temperament TV material adult, child-directed production techniques understandability environment viewing style: caregiver present? foreground or background caregiver education research experimental longitudinal Ivs/DVDs - cognitive, emotional Infants learn little from T.V. before about 18 months old Toddlers: Imitation "the video deficit": infants and toddlers learn more from people than TV Toddlers: Play distracts children from play 1, 2, and 3 y.o. play with and without T.V. in background. With T.V., different outcomes Some take-home thoughts costs vs benefits sometimes benefits to educational T.V. when viewed "appropriately" for 2.5 to 5 y.o. caregivers are important watch age-appropriate programs WITH kids model good habits choose what to watch 1/16/2016 Measurement Scientific Method pose a question design an investigation collect and analyze the data publish results pose a question what makes a good research question? must be falsifiable Must be challengeable identify your hypothesis the intensity of the conviction that a hypothesis is true ahs no bearing on whether it is true or not. Identify your own biases, play devil's advocate, recognize your perspective and go from there design an investigation operationalizing: translate your question into specific, testable procedures that can be measured or observed descriptive method describe things as they are surveys, naturalistic observations, case studies o Pros: great detail o Cons: not easy to generalize, cannot manipulate variables, survey dishonesty correlational method looks at relationships between variables measures the variables, but does not manipulate them sometimes two variables are closely related o positive correlation, strongly related sometimes two variables are not related at all o zero correlation, not related at all sometimes two variables are sort of related o positive correlation, so-so related correlation does not equal causation Correlation can be negative (as one goes up the other goes down) Correlational methods allow people to measure variables that are not manipulated directly Con: you can't manipulate it, you can't know for sure what is going on and how other stuff is affecting. Besides, it doesn't mean it's causing this, it just means it goes together. experimental method controlled situations in which variables are manipulated to see specifically what's affecting what independent variable (IV): what is manipulated or controlled by the experimenter dependent variable (DV): what is measured (depends on what you're manipulating) dealing with confounds control group double-blind procedure random assignment some variables cannot actually be manipulated > quasi- experimental design Pros: allow for direct manipulation of variables Cons: sometimes hard or unethical to manipulate things Developmental designs longitudinal: test the same group over a period of time microgenetic: type of longitudinal, child is repeatedly tested in a short period of time to identify change o Pros: helps explain change in that group, controls for variation between age groups o Cons: hard, eexpensive, drop-out, improvement through practice. cross-sectional: performance of individuals at different ages is compared o Pros: easier to do o Cons: cohort effects, unable to show individual change collect and analyze the data Ethics: informed consent, anonymous and confidential, minimize risk to participants publish results peer-reviewed process difference between publishing online / magazines and publishing in journals 1/25/2016 - 1/27/2016 Piaget An overview of Piaget's Theory main knowledge: how does knowledge grow? assumptions: child is motivated to learn, no rewards needed (AKA constructivist theory) child is like a scientists (e.g., generating hypotheses) methods: descriptive and experimental learning processes: assimilation - representing experiences in terms of existing knowledge accommodation - understanding altered by new information equilibration - balancing to create stable understanding e.g. child learning plants are alive sensorimotor (0-2) preoperational (2-6) concrete operations (7-11) formal operations (12+) Sensorimotor Period (0-2) understanding of the world increases dramatically modification of reflexes (0-1 mo) primary circular reactions (1-4 mo) actions are more coordinated, combining reflexes. Brings objects to mouth o Guiding towards nutrition or survival, sucking, grasping, Babinski reflex Secondary circular reactions (4-8 mo) interested in objects, not just their own body o Object permanence issue coordination of secondary circular reactions (8-12 mo) coordinating multiple actions AKA means-ends behavior reach for pillow to find hidden objects. grasping some aspects of object permanence tertiary circular reactions (12-18 mo) deliberately varying behaviors that produce interesting outcomes beginnings of representational thought (18-24 mo) start understanding symbols and representations first signs of pretend play and deferred imitation different perspectives Piaget underestimated infants hindered by his methodology preferential looking paradigm o measures the amount of time infants spend looking at different stimuli o look longer at one: can tell difference or have preference o look same: can't tell difference or no preference habituation method o measures the amount of time infants spend looking at the same stimuli o start looking less time: shows boredom, have grown accustomed to stimuli o if stimuli is changed and infant spends much time looking at it, can tell difference o if child does not look at it much more intently, cannot tell difference Piaget said that infants don’t understand object permanence until 8-12 mo or later o but other have found that infants sort of understand it by 4 mo. look longer at "impossible" event o understanding object permanence is gradual, not sudden Piaget said infants don’t understand symbols until 18-24 mo o but infants can use language before then Piaget said infants can't do deferred imitation until 18-24 mo o but other researchers have found differently Piaget may have been right about some changes in infancy, but not all Preoperational Period (2-7) Development of symbolic understanding and language use engage in pretend play, think about past struggle on other questions Egocentrism Children limited in ability to take the perspective of others Tested with 3 mountain task Centration Don’t understand conservation Focus on one aspect of the problem neglecting others Class inclusion Fail at knowing that objects can belong to one or more classes or categories Different perspectives Piaget said children were egocentric through early childhood But other researchers have found differently o Not enough working memory? Not rotating object mentally? Children have a "theory of mind" by age 4 o Basic understanding of other people's mental states: beliefs, desires, feelings o Studied with false belief and false contents tasks o Rethinking egocentrism: drawing rotation at age 3 o deception at age 2-3 o egocentrism in older children Failed explanations Piaget said children didn’t understand conservation But why else might they fail Improving performance on conservation tasks o Reduce memory / processing load o Pragmatic constraints o Reconceptualizing the problem Inprove performance on class inclusion task o Word usage o Making it clear that the group is being considered Concrete Operations Period (7-11) Begin to think logically about the physical world (e.g. pass conservation task with number, solid, liquid) Grasp length, volume, time Can solve multiple classification problems Can't think abstractly (e.g. about "what could be") Difficulty with hypothetical reasoning problems Difficulty using systematic approaches to solving some problems Different perspectives Piaget said that acquiring conservation should be universal But some cross cultural differences o Mexican children making pottery understand it earlier o Children without formal education understand it later And not all conservation is solved at once Piaget said that kids cant do logical reasoning But kids this age can do it sometimes o They can do it if they are experts or are taught some strategies Formal Operations Period (11+) Understands abstract concepts, logic, hypothetical thinking Different perspectives Piaget said children shift to this stage all at once But children and teens are less consistent o e.g. abstract thinking in science vs history Piaget said this was the final stage of cognitive development But some don’t reach this stage at all And there are cultural differences o Unschooled vs. Schooled children And there are individual differences Sensorimotor (0-2) Uses mainly senses-motor skills First signs of object/symbol understanding Preoperational (2-7) Use symbols, words Egocentric Focus on one aspect of a problem Concrete operational (7-11) Perform true mental operations Have difficulty with thinking abstractly and hypothetically Formal operational (11+) Think abstractly Reason deductively Summary of Piaget's theory Main question: how does knowledge grow? Contributions: Founding the field of cognitive development Conceptualizing development as active and constructive Exploring new methods Getting a good "gist" of cognitive development processes, especially with older children 2/1/2016 Sociocultural Theories Vygotsky's Theory Internalization of socially shared processes - leads to developmental change Intersubjectivity - shared understanding through mutual attention/communication 2 mo show contingent interaction By 9 mo, show joint attention Perspective taking continues to develop Zone of proximal development (ZPD) - the extra reasoning that a child can do in interaction with an adult or peer Psychological functioning mediated by cultural tools Technical tools (e.g. hammer, silverware) Psychological tools (e.g. maps, number systems, language) Vygotsky's Experiment Explored natural memory (perceptual) vs sin assisted memory (mediated by symbols, hints) Kind of like the name "Taboo" First task: baseline Asked questions like "what color is the floor?" Second task: Two forbidden colors Third task: given different color cards to "help them win" Types of Learning Imitative Learning: Reproducing someone's behavior to achieve the same goal Emulation: Learning that focuses on the end goal Instructed Learning: Intentional transmission of information Collaborative Learning: learning through cooperation Interacting with adults Adults are important for children's learning Moms labeling objects correlates with higher child vocabularies (Masur, 1982) Adults scaffold (i.e. structure) children's thinking better than peers Attention plays a role 2yo show longer attention spans when playing with ___ (Dunn & Wooding, 1977) 10mo attention at play (Parrinello & Ruff, 1988) Adults assigned to low, medium, or high involvement o Greater attention in medium involvement level o Kids with low attention spans benefitted more Kids with low attention spans benefitted more because parents with medium involvement helped them stay on track, kids with high attention spans were not as bothered because they focused on the task regardless of parent- Early language experience strengthens processing and builds vocabulary (Weisleder & Fernald, 2013) Purpose: Examine how the speech children overhear, their own language processing skills, and vocabulary relate in a sample of lower SES families o Why? Measures o At 19mo, audio recordings categorized into SPEECH DIRECTED TO CHILD and SPEECH OVERHEARD o Expressive vocabulary at 24 months o Language processing efficiency Infants who hear more talk develop skills important for word learning (e.g. segmenting speech, orienting to familiar words). Wide variability in child-directed speech even in low SES sample and not correlated with maternal education Interacting with peers Quality of interaction matters Easier for 5yo than 3yo Shared involvement helps Focus on same issues vs just talking out loud Pairs of siblings tend to do better than pairs of unrelated kids Guidance regarding teamwork Providing examples of ways to work together Relative expertise Helps both parties to have one be more knowledgeable Task difficulty Collaboration helpful until task is too difficult Cultural norms Board game maze Navajo and Euro-American children Navajo children planned for longer, made less errors Why? Valued speed more in euroamerican culture? Interacting with the Culture Guided participation Interacting together in culturally valued activities – means by which children are socialized into their culture Research on guided participation (Rogoff et al, 1993) 4 communities observed in routines/games o Kids segregated from (Utah & Turkey) OR integrated wit (Guatemala & India) adults Similarities: adjusting level of involvement o Verbal and nonverbal communication Differences: guidance, responsibility o Children guided by adult more when there is a separation. Children had more responsibiliry and active involvement in cultures with less separation, sometimes trying to spontaneously join it Interacting with tools / language Psychological functioning mediated by cultural tools (e.g. alphabet song, abacus, numbers base ten) Language Vygotsky: Inner speech (silent, internalized speech) allows children to reach higher psychological functions How important is language for thought? Linguistic Relativity (Whorf) Hypothesis: Language influences or controls thought and perception o How many are there? (Pens) English: 4 pens Other languages (e.g. Russian or Japanese): gender and/or shape relevant descriptions o Object gender study (Boroditsky) Native Spanish and German speakers given nouns that have opposite genders in the two languages Asked to describe nouns in English (i.e., provide adjectives) o Adjectives related to gender of object in native language Alternative explanations Cultural differences, no language per se Weird questions Limited influence on thought itself Other evidence FOR Whorf Object categorization (Lucy, 1992) o Yucatec Maya Nouns often refer to material o English Nouns sometimes refer to shape o Difference in categorizing objects Evidence AGAINST Whorf Languages can be translated Not having a word in a language does not mean lack of understanding of the concept o Implications of Sociocultural Theory Testing Dynamic assessment: focused on zone of development Fostering communities of learners (Jigsaw Classroom) Use of Tools (e.g. number, alphabet) General – need to study thinking in context. 2/3/2016 Perception Perception and Attention Why study perception? Important for survival and communication How does it change over development? "Great blooming, buzzing confusion"? Some innate understandings Task of Perception Attending: determining what needs detailed processing Making sense of information and focusing on the most important thing Identifying: recognizing what we are perceiving Locating: specifying the distance/relation to object/event Vision How to study vision? Preferential looking Habituation Attending Orient to stimuli o Orienting reflex: present from birth Present in anencephalic infants (no cortex, only brain stem); subcortical capacity Infants shown stimuli in a predictable and unpredictable pattern o For the predictable pattern, they show anticipatory eye gaze and enhanced reaction times Beyond orienting, by 3.5 months can control their own visual attention By 6 mo infants control their own visual attention with delay Attention in Infancy o Deciding what to look at Moderate stimulation hypothesis o How do we know about visual acuity? Infants prefer to look at stripes over solids Can use this to determine how much space between stripes infants need to see the difference 7-8 mo about equal acuity to adults Visual experience is crucial Identifying Motion: o Track large/slow objects at first, then improve Color: o Categorical perception for all colors in first few months of life Before knowing word labels. Study present 4 mo with wavelength until habituated What colors do infants see first? Tough to test 2 week old infants can distinguish red from white Faces (social perception): o Newborns track face-like stimuli over other stimuli o 12 to 36 hour olds prefer mother's face o As young as three days old, prefer "attractive" faces Why prefer attractive faces? Evolutionary pressures Cognitive averaging Locating The world id 3-D; visual information in 2-D Monocular cues (one eye needed): o First few months of life, infants can use motion cues to distance, like motion parallax and occlusion o 5 to 7 months, use cues that don't involve motion, like texture and relative size Texture gradient Depth cues Binocular cues (two eyes needed): o At 4 mo, can suddenly see depth with binocular eyes Sudden capacity to segregate input from each eye to the visual cortex o Visual experience important Hearing How to study hearing? Head-turn preference High amplitude sucking Attending Own name (4 months) Prefer native language even younger Identifying Speech: o 2 day old infants prefer motherese o Categorical discrimination (e.g. 2 mo discriminate "ba" from "pa") o Unlike adults, young infants sensitive to contrasts in all languages o Sensitivity to all phonemes declines around 10 months At 9 mo infants prefer listening to familiar native phonemes At 10 mo cannot hear all sounds anymore Begin speaking first words between 9-12 mo, brain narrows down to sounds important to speaking their language and they start speaking their own language Cross-modal perception o Combining info from two or more sensory systems (modalities) Linking vision and touch (1 mo) Sucker with texture Linking vision and touch (4 mo) Hard vs flimsy connection of balls Linking vision and audition (4 mo) Look at screen that has the name number of objects than the audio stimuli Linking vision and audition (5 mo) Pay more attention to the glad or sad face when audio stimuli corresponds o Infants attention is attracted MORE to multimodal information and they learn faster E.g., rhythm and lights Perception and Attention Conclusions Infants actively attend to their environment And infants develop expectations about their world Linking Perception and Action Perception and action in adults Prism eyeglasses study: can adults adapt to glasses? Active person learns, passive doesn't Motor development First few months of life, pre-reaching movements 7 mo, sitting independently, smoother reaching 7-8 mo, crawling Visual Cliff General findings 7 mo with crawling experience won't cross and show faster heart rate 7 mo with no crawling experience cross Kitten experiment Active/passive kittens o Raised in dark, except 3 hours on carousel Active kitten will not cross visual cliff. Passive kitten will Self-generated locomotion study Walker vs no walker Infants with experience with walker will not cross, even if not crawling yet Self-generated locomotion seems to help link perceptual information Transfer of motor learning (Karen Adolph) How much do motor skills transfer? o Infants in 3 stages: crawlers, cruisers, walkers o Crawlers ranged from 4.8 to 9.6 mo; walkers from 9.3 to 14.9 mo Studied transfer of motor skills to novel situations o As children gain more experience with motor skills, do they make better decisions (about slopes/gaps)? Experience with specific motor skill helped infants realize which slopes they could handle o Does their knowledge regarding difficult situations transfer as they learn new motor skills? No transfer from crawling to cruising, or from cruising to walking Visual cliff, is it fear? Traditional view: infants learn to "fear" heights o Accelerated heart rate o Kittens, goats, and other animals also stop It's not fear o Avoiding infants often don't show facial signs of fear avoiding infants often very close to edge o No evidence that they understand specifics of danger Do infants have memories? Memory for objects 3 week olds can remember simple objects 5 mo can remember more complex stimuli for 2 days Working Memory AKA short-term memory – info just received that may be processed for further use Shown sets of items, then shown individual items with novel items to see if preference for novel 25% of 5-7 mo and 50% of 12 mo can recall 3 or 4 items Babies also show primacy and recency effects Memory for associations Kicking mobile / train task As they get older, they remember for longer periods of time o 3 mo remember for 2-8 days byt forget by day 14. As delay period increases (24 hrs to 4 or 7 days) the memories for the mobile become less specific Memories for salient features in the room can matter more Reminders can increase the time to forgetting Memory in utero The "Cat in the Hat" study Pregnant women read book 2 times a day last 6 weeks of pregnancy 2 to 3 day old infants adjust sucking to hear book mom read Do infants know physics? The Object Concept Definition: Objects are enduring entities that continue to exist when out of sight Piaget: Claims that full understanding of objects emerges at 18 mo, constructed to experience, some awareness with reaching tasks by 8-12 mo Violation of Expectations Paradigm o Habituate o Shown possible or impossible event o If infants look longer at the impossible event, suggests expectations are violated o Occlusion Screen that continues to go back when an object is placed behind Some 3.5 mo babies look longer at impossible event. Babies eventually recognize that physical properties behind the screen matter o Spatial relations Tall and Short Bunny that does not appear behind the board 5.5 mo babies are surprised when tall bunny does nor appear Minnie that does not appear between the columns 3.5 mo babies know Minnie should come out the other side and should show between pillars By 6 mo babies take into account relative size. o Support Cube that does not fall over from ledge By 6.5 mo look longer at impossible event 5.5 mo think any contact should support the objects o The Object Concept Violation of expectation paradigm supports rich understanding of the physical world, even between 3.5 and 6 mo o Criticism of violation of expectations paradigm Perceptual or cognitive Lingering visual memory trace Degraded sensory information, therefore look longer at novel event? Neurological evidence 6 mo EEG data mirrors adults EEG data – lingering brain activity with unexpected disappearance EEG activity increases after item occluded but not after disintegrated o Recognize the object was still there The object concept Brain data contributions o Infant and adults brains both process object information in right temporal cortex o Object must disappear in a way that suggests it still exists (e.g. occlusions vs disintegration) o Activity for objects is not the same as activity for faces Naïve Physics conclusions Infants understand that the world has a perceptual structure early on, though the object concept is imperfect Infants build knowledge about the physical world before expressive language begins – ongoing research examining neural substrates of object concept Something babies can't do A not B task Piaget originally thought perseveration due to cognitive confusion In addition to A not B errors, also see search errors in crawling Current research indicates caused by immaturities in the prefrontal cortex o Adults with lesions o Monkeys with lesions o Motor inhibition error Social too? http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php? storyId=112524209 Dogs make similar mistakes but wolves don’t. Not just inhibition – also has to do with how we learn from others