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PYS 150 Ch7 Lecture & Textbook Notes

by: Lorelei Wong

PYS 150 Ch7 Lecture & Textbook Notes PSY 150A1

Marketplace > University of Arizona > Psychlogy > PSY 150A1 > PYS 150 Ch7 Lecture Textbook Notes
Lorelei Wong
GPA 3.43
Structure of Mind & Behavior
Dr. Adam Lazarewicz

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About this Document

Ch 7 Notes
Structure of Mind & Behavior
Dr. Adam Lazarewicz
Class Notes
Psychology, Structure of Mind & Behavior, memory
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lorelei Wong on Friday March 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 150A1 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. Adam Lazarewicz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Structure of Mind & Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 03/11/16
PSY 150A1 With Prof Lazarewicz Lecture Notes Chapter 7 Cognition Cognitive psychology informational processing 0 What is Memory 0 Memory hold onto info for later use 0 3 steps to memory 1 Encoding inputting info 2 Storage retaining info 3 Retrieval grabbing info when needed Encoding Memories 0 human memory isn39t a single thing has lots of stores or sets of neurons that contain the info 0 ThreeStage Model of Memory Atkinson amp Shiffrin 1968 1 Sensory memory 2 Shortterm memory working memory 3 Longterm memory 0 Sensory memory quotlowestquot level of memory See it and brie y retain it fast eeting within seconds Stores a multitude of sensory info for less than a second Exists for all senses Iconic memory the visual form of sensory memory Sperling 1960 o Showed people a slide full of letters in rows and columns 0 Typically participants only remembered the rst 4 5 letters on the slide but report seeing more 0 Study 2 partial report paradigm Nearly perfect memory Paired tone with a line in the slide amp participants would repeat that correlated line 0 Even though tone is after letters 0 All letters stored brie y in sensory memory but faded quickly 0 13 second after worse performance 0 23 second after image has faded 0 Why do we have sensory memory Allows for a cohesive experience of the world o If we were to blink without sensory memory it39d be like a picture slide show or strobe light effect 0 Speech without sensory memory D we39d lose track of answer andor question before the end of a long sentence 0 Working memory sensory memory store that holds relatively little information when we are using it Allows conscious processing of information Limited amount of storage capacity PSY 150A1 With Prof Lazarewicz Miller 1956 about 7 2 pieces of information Keeping info in the working memory Rehearsal repeating info in hopes of memorizing or retaining it Chunking more ef cient groupings of stored memory 0 Grouping info into chunks 0 When cluster into chunks that have meaning l easier to remember 0 Longterm memory memory store that contains memories for a long period of time Encoding passing info from working memory to longterm memory for storage Retrieval recovering info from longterm memory for use by the working memory 0 Sensory input D sensory memory D attention D working memory D encoding D longterm memory Can jump back from longterm memory to working memory amp that39s called retrieval 0 Automatic vs Effortful Encoding 0 Automatic Ex space time frequency of events 0 Effortful Ex rehearsal Herman Ebbinghaus created nonsense words and tested own memory Kept to words like DAX TUV YOX so that they would hold no meaning making them a little harder to remember 0 Role rehearsal helped only temporarily quotthose who learn quickly forget quicklyquot Levels of processing deep vs shaow ways of thinking Deeper processing D better reca Selfreferent effect better memory for selfrelevant info Importance of imagery easier to remember things we can associate with pictures mentally than ideas that don39t necessarily have images directly tied with them 0 Ex difference in trying to remember lists 0 Apple trombone dinosaur vs happiness empty freedom 0 Memory tip 1 a little extra time amp effort at the start can save you a hell of a lot of time and effort later Takes less work to review than to relearn everything you only learned brie y and forgot about after 0 Memory tip 2 make info personally relevant 0 Memory tip 3 think of info in vivid imagery lled ways 0 Serial Position Effect 0 Primacy effect things rst on list have a good memory for Timing for encoding in long term memory PSY 150A1 With Prof Lazarewicz o Recency effect good memory for end of list Still in the working memory 0 Types of memories 0 Declarative memory can be retrieved at will by conscious Encoded into long term memory by hippocampus Episodic memory memory of events amp their contexts Semantic memory memory of word meanings concepts facts 0 Semantic networks semantic memories associated with related concepts Spreading activation model activation of one unit spreads to related concepts 0 Procedural memory memory of how to do something skills amp habits Happens at least somewhat automatically Encoded by cerebellum Emotion and memory 0 Longterm potentiation making neural connections quotstrongerquot with repeated stimulation neural basis for learning Effect on sending neuron lower threshold Effect on receiving neuron more receptor sites Emotional memories create stronger connections Emotions l norepinephrine l hippocampus functioning o Flashbulb memories vivid memory of a dramatic event quotphotographic qualityquot Feels very accurate 0 Why do we forget o 3 reasons for forgetting 1 Encoding failure 2 Storage failure Ebbinghaus39 forgetting curve 3 Retrieval failure 0 Why would retrieval fail Repression repressing memories that cause anxiety or pain provoking thoughts to unconscious Freudian concept 0 Little scienti c evidence of repression 0 Possible false memories Memory is NOT a perfect representation of what happened 0 NOT simply info stored Memories made up of stored info assumptions and what we already know about an event Encoding memory construction Retrieval memory reconstruction Ex Loftus 1993 o quotHow fast were the cars going when they each otherquot PSY 150A1 With Prof Lazarewicz quotHow fast were the cars going when they smashed into each otherquot Varies word used to say they collided after people shown a video of a car accident no broken glass 0 People responded differently to how fast based on the word used because of preconditioned ideas of how fast something needs to go to smash crash hit bump and tap Language 0 What is language 0 Language spoken written or signed words and the way we combine them to communicate info Language is symbolic Symbols have meanings or concepts connected to them Language is generic It39s a creative enterprise 0 Structure of language 0 Phonemes smallest sound units in a language Ex 39cat has 3 phonemes cat Ex 39cats39 has 4 phonemes cats Smallest language has about 14 larges has about 140 Consonants carry more meaning and info than vowels o Morpheme smallest language units that have meaning Ex 39cat has 1 morpheme cat Ex 39cats39 has 2 morphemes cat s Ex 39previewed39 has 3 morphemes pre view ed 0 Grammar 2 systems of rules that govern language structure Syntax word order 0 Ex quotkicked ball the red the girlquot vs quotthe girl kicked the red ballquot 0 English has very little room for syntax error mess up and the sentence won39t make sense 0 Other languages have more freedom of syntax can mix up placement of words and meaning still comes across correctly Semantics rules for deriving meaning from morphemes words and sentences 0 Ex quotedquot past tense plural Independent of syntax Pragmatics indirect implications of language as opposed to outright assertion Ex asking someone quotdo you know what time it isquot and they respond yes you really wanted to know what time is was not whether or not they knew Key to metaphors jokes PSY 150A1 With Prof Lazarewicz Right hemisphere skill Brownell et al 1990 o Told jokes to patients with damage to right hemisphere D choose appropriate punch line 0 Patients pick totally at random 0 Language development 0 50 English phonemes D gt100000 morphemes D 616500 word forms OED D practically in nite sentences 0 Language development 0 Nativism nature vocab grammar acquisition too fast amp novel to be simply learned Language structures similar crossculturally Noam Chomsky Language acquisition device LAD innate brain mechanism that allegedly contains grammatical rules common to all languages and allows acquisition Evidence genes may in uence development possibly evolved in last 100000 years brain amp mouth precisely designed for language 0 Empiricism nurture language learned through conditioning Connection between seeing objects and hearing words Imitation of models amp reinforcement Children spoken to more D more pro cient language development Adults adjust speech to clarify language Childdirectedspeech speech with short sentences clear pauses careful enunciations exaggerated tone highpitched voice 0 Broca39s area language production Left frontal lobe Broca39s aphasia problems producing language due to brain damage 0 Cannot create sentences and ideas verbally but understand what asking just cannot communicate an answer well 0 Wernicke39s area language comprehension Left temporal lobe Wernicke39s aphasia problems comprehending language due to brain damage 0 Don39t understand questions but can formulate answers although may not be understandable answers 0 Stages of language development About 3 MO Babbling spontaneous utterances of sounds usually constantvowel pairs D ba ma ta 0 Congenitally deaf babies quotbabblequot with signs 0 Not necessarily sounds of native language PSY 150A1 With Prof Lazarewicz About 812 MO 0 Native language begins to appear in babbling Sounds that won39t be present in native language begin to disappear D become quotfunctionally deafquot to sounds outside naUvelanguage PSY 150A1 With Prof Lazarewicz Textbook Notes Tipof thetongue phenomenon trouble with retrieval of memory or knowledge that one knows but cannot retrieve it when cognitively trying to Recall speci c information must be retrieved from memory Recognition realization that you have been exposed to a stimulus before Explicit memory conscious recognition of memory or info Implicit memory unconscious recognition of memory or info but can still affect behavior Constructive process meaning given to event is in uenced by memories Schemas sections of info in memories that affect how we interpret encode store and recall things Autobiographical memory recollection of our own experiences Decay loss of memories over time Interference info in a memory can cause a disruption in recalling other information Cuedependent forgetting insufficient retrieval cues cause loss of memory Proactive interference info learned earlier causes info learned later to be disrupted Alzheimer39s disease progressive brain disorder which has a worsening and irreversible effect on cognitive abilities Amnesia memory loss without affecting other parts of brain Retrograde amnesia don39t remember past but can create new memories Anterograde amnesia remember past cannot create new memories Korsakoff39s syndrome affects longterm alcoholics some abilities intact but has hallucinations and tendency to repeat the same stories


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