PSYC 1001: Week 9
PSYC 1001: Week 9 PSYC 1001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hayley Seal on Friday March 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1001 at George Washington University taught by Ramezan Dowlati in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 03/11/16
PSYC 1001 Dr. Ramezan Dowlati Class Notes for March 8-10 Intelligence (March 8) Spearman’s General Intelligence Theory (g) o People all share g, and then they have additional specialized intelligence (s) Theories for specialized intelligence: o Gardner’s 8 (or 9) intelligences Linguistic/verbal, logical, visual-spatial, intra-personal, etc. o Sternberg’s three intelligences He proposed this theory because of his son, who earns more money than his PhD father though he only had his bachelor’s degree Analytical – learned at school Practical – learned in real life, on the street, from experience Creative – art, music, etc. Intelligence tests only measure general intelligence “Emotional intelligence” coined by Dan Goldman in 1984 o “EQ” instead of IQ o The ability to read your own and other people’s emotions and to express your emotions appropriately o In general, women have more emotional intelligence than men Evolutionary explanation: need to communicate with newborn babies and infants, who do not speak but communicate through their emotions o Important for teachers, nurses and doctors, and business receptionists or customer service representatives Assessing intelligence: o Aptitude tests measure your ability to learn/future success (ex. SAT) o Achievement test measures what you have learned after training, experience, class, etc. o France is the birthplace of intelligence tests: Alfred Binet and the Binet test Attempt to predict children’s future success in the Paris school program o IQ is calculated based on the concept of mental age, compared to chronological age o Stanford-Binet test was Alfred Binet’s test, adapted for American students Adopted and revised by Louis Turman of Stanford University o David Wechsler: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) There is a version for children too (WISC) Most widely used intelligence test today Flynn effect: intelligence scores have been increasing over time (your score on an IQ test is higher than your parents, whose scores are higher than their parents) o Doesn’t necessarily mean that you are smarter than your grand-parents… o May be a result of changes made to the test or adaptation to the test o What is increasing? Test performance, not necessarily intelligence itself The normal curve/normal distribution = bell curve o Anything that nature distributes is distributed in a bell curve (pouring sugar, height, etc.) o Nature does not distribute equally o Human distribution of something may be skewed o 68% of people are within 1 standard deviation from the mean o 95% of people are within 2 standard deviations Qualifications of a “good” test: standardized, reliable, valid o Binet test was standardized for France; Stanford-Binet test was standardized for a California with demographics that have since changed A test made for one population cannot be used on another to make an accurate assessment o Reliability means that the test gives the same output for the score input Ex. Bath scale reads 200 lbs when you step on it, then shows 203 lbs when you step on it 5 minutes later --> low reliability o Validity means a test should measure what it is supposed to measure Most measurements (temperature, time, etc.) do not have 100% validity So it is OK that psychological tests (such as the Rorschach test) and intelligence tests do not have 100% validity either They measure the effect of intelligence; they do not measure intelligence directly Belief that responses to questions are the effect of intelligence Intelligence tests do not directly measure intelligence BUT they are a valid measure of mental capacity Stability and change of intelligence o 2 types of intelligence o Crystalized intelligence = vocabulary, knowledge of facts/names/etc. Stable, increases as we age (until late adulthood) o Fluid intelligence = good for solving problems that don’t have a clear answer; quick and abstract reasoning, creativity Decreases after early/middle adulthood Motivation (March 10) What are the reasons or explanations for behavior? Why did the elephant cross the river? “Think elephantly” o To get food o To follow the herd (belongingness) o To escape from predators (safety and security) o To meet up with a mate (affiliative/reproductive) o In order to reach goals (achievement) --> this one is more of a human reason; animals don’t really care about achievement Dr. Dowlati claims that Donald Trump is working harder than college students and that he has more food than Hillary Clinton o Trump’s reasoning for running for president is publicity, notoriety, fame, legacy (esteem) All of these reasons are needs o Physiological needs: food, sex, sleep o Higher needs: belongingness, esteem Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs o Order of importance of needs goes from bottom of pyramid to top o Most people are preoccupied with physiological needs; that’s where you spend your money first o More money --> safety and security (good house/neighborhood, etc.) o More money --> belongingness and love needs o According to this model, if a more important need is not satisfied, you don’t worry about higher needs By this logic, you will give up relationships/friendships if your safety is at risk You will sacrifice safety or health to satisfy physiological needs, such as people who drink polluted water because there is no other water available o Self-actualization needs are #5 --> at the top of the need hierarchy, you do things for yourself Generally explains behavior of people who have sufficient wealth Physiology of Hunger o Low blood sugar triggers hunger o Involves the lateral part of the hypothalamus (appetite and hunger) and ventral-medial hypothalamus (satiation) If either part is destroyed, it can explain either not eating or eating too much even to the point of unhealthy or death Physiology of Obesity o Set point: your body has a tendency to keep you at a certain weight; if you lose weight, increased hunger and lowered metabolism combine to return you to your set point Can be changed, but requires long-term lifestyle change Hormones and Sexual Behavior o There are internal stimuli (hormones) but also external stimuli (visual, auditory, etc.) cause stimulation beyond physiological needs Images of food can stimulate hunger, too Today we eat food as a social function and we get pleasure from it; it’s fun (“superficial need”)
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