Chapter 11 + 14
Popular in Intro to Cognitive Neuroscience
Popular in Psychlogy
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Wu on Friday March 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 50 at Stanford University taught by Justin Gardner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cognitive Neuroscience in Psychlogy at Stanford University.
Reviews for Chapter 11 + 14
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/11/16
Chapter 11: Social Cognition Introductory Box ● autism spectrum disorderneurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in communication, social interactions, repetitive stereotyped behaviors ○ different from other disorders by having social deficits as core symptom ○ DSM criteria: impairment using nonverbal behavior, failure to develop peer relationships, failure to spontaneously share interests with others, lack of social/emotional reciprocity ○ difficulty processing faces, emotional expressions, and biological motion ○ reduced activation in fusiform gyrus and amygdala when viewing faces ○ difficulty integrating parts into wholes/synthesizing information ○ difficulty following gaze/using gaze to infer other people’s intentions ○ tend to analyze problems by applying rigid rules The Self ● selfreflexive thoug ability to consider one’s own being as an object, which is subject to objective consideration ○ being able to distinguish self from others, selfawareness ● the “mark test” ○ researcher places mark on forehead of animal visible only in the mirror → selfrecognition demonstrated if the animal repeatedly touches mark while looking at mirror Embodiment ● the sense of being localized within one’s body ● gives rise to sense of selflocation (feeling of being at certain location) and egocentric frame of reference (navigating world with reference to own viewpoint/spatial location) ● temporoparietal junction at border between parietal/temporal lobes contributes to outofbody experiences Perception of Social Cues Evident in the Face and Body Face perception ● pathway begins in occipital lobe upon seeing a face ● divided into ventral and dorsal pathways that process in parallel ● ventral: processes invariant aspects of face, discriminates faces from other objects and other faces, includes fusiform face area → sent to anterior temporal lobe, where face is linked with semantic/episodic knowledge about the person ○ pathway important for person recognition ● dorsal: processes changeable aspects of faces like perception of eye gaze and expressions, superior temporal sulcus → limbic system (emotion processing), auditory complex (speech perception), and intraparietal sulcus (spatial attention processing) ● ventral pathway: occipital lobe → fusiform face area → anterior temporal lobe ● dorsal pathway: occipital lobe → superior temporal sulcus → limbic system, auditory complex, intraparietal sulcus Interpersonal attention and action direction ● social referencing use of body gestures/facial expressions of others to determine how to act in an ambiguous situation ● join attentio directing your attention to something that is cued by someone else ○ variant of posner cuing task: subjects shown a face gazing left or right instead of arrows, and subjects must respond when they detect the target stimulus ○ findings: subjects are more willing to follow gaze even when its predictive value is low, valid gaze cues improve target detection , invalid gaze cues show slower reaction times Perception of biological motion ● perception of nonverbal communication starts in visual areas, relayed to superior temporal sulcus (STS) ● STS shows preference for body actions that are meaningful/goaldirected ○ ex: hand gestures that complete an action sequence create more activity in STS than random gestures ● STS signals more when there is violation of expected behavior, such as when body language is incongruent with person’s facial affect in a situation Social Categorization Stereotypes and automatic racial biases ● Implicit Association Test (IAsubjects presented with African American or Caucasian faces and also positive or negative words → asked to press different keys depending on whether the word is good/bad, or if the face is African American/Caucasian ○ one trial → key for African American face and bad words is the same, Caucasian face and good words is the same ○ another trial → key for African American face and good words is the same, Caucasian face and bad words is the same ○ implicit biases are tested by looking at difference in reaction times between the two trials ● startle responses and amygdala activity are related to implicit racial biases when seeing an unfamiliar face of another race Understanding the Actions and Emotions of Others ● theory of mind: inferring the mental states of others, attributing actions of others to their beliefs, goals, desires, feelings ● mirror neurons: discovered in macaque monkeys in inferior prefrontal gyrus ○ increase activity when grasping action is performed and also when grasping action of another person/animal is viewed ○ may be important in understanding empathy, theory of mind, and language acquisition ○ evidence for mirror neurons in humans is suggestive but do not have same anatomical features as those found in monkeys Theory of mind in children and apes ● falsebelief tasks: testing whether one can infer what another person will falsely believe to be true ○ locationchange tasks: object placed in one location, and object is then moved to another location without the other person knowing → subject must guess where the other person will look for the object ○ unexpectedcontent tasks: object placed in a container, and object is then replaced with another object without the other person knowing → subject must guess what the other person thinks is in the container ○ theory of mind develops in humans at about 4 years old Chapter 14: Decision Making ● rational choice modelincorporate different features of a decision into an algorithm that can evaluate/compare the different options ● neuroeconomics: using neuroscience to help resolve issues in economics ○ field emerged because researchers found that people don’t always make rational choices, so the rational choice models failed to model this From Rational Choice to Behavioral Economics ● expected value multiplying the probability of each outcome by its associated reward ○ how people should make decisions: select the option of highest expected value ● utili psychological value assigned to an outcome, rather than economical ○ ex: utility of a small increase in wealth is inversely proportional to a person’s current wealth → diminishing marginal utility ● prospect theorattempts to predict what people ctuallchoose, rather than what theyshould choose; depends on these two factors: ○ reference dependence:people make decisions in terms of anticipated gains/losses compared to their current state ■ both gains/losses have diminishing marginal effects ○ probability weightipeople perceive probabilities in a very subjective manner ■ tend to overestimate low probability events and underestimate high probability events Reward and Utility Dopamine: pleasure or motivation? ● dopamine: neurotransmitter responsible for evaluation of rewards ○ damage to dopamine system can result in difficulty controlling motor movements (Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases) ● in the midbrain, two structures contain dopamine neuventral tegmental area (VTA), substantia nigra ● mesolimbic pathway: VTA project to nucleus accumbens in the basal ganglia → amygdala, hippocampus, other cortical regions ● nigrostriatal pathway: substantia nigra projects to dorsal striatum of basal ganglia ● dopamine seems to support the motivation to pursue a reward ○ activation of nucleus accumbens is elicited by motivationally relevant stimuli (money, food, etc.) Reward prediction error ● changes in activity in dopamine neurons signal changes in information, not the rewards themselves ○ studies: VTA in humans increases in response when receiving unpredictable rewards compared to predictable rewards ● reward prediction error the difference between the received reward compared to what was expected, also the change in information about future rewards ● temporal difference learningsuccessive states of the world are correlated over time, so our predictions about those states also change and correlate over time ○ reward prediction error guides behavior through temporal difference learning Social Context Social cooperation ● game theory: studies how decisions are made when multiple people are involved ○ prisoner’s dilemma: two people are arrested → options for each are to rat out the other person to police or stay silent; if both stay silent, both are jailed for shorter time; if both rat each other out, both are jailed for longer time; if one rats the other and the other stays silent, the silent one is jailed and the other walks free ○ trust game: two people are given the same amount of starting money → the investor gives portion of money to the trustee → amount of money given is multiplied and added to trustee’s balance → trustee gives back a portion of his money to the investor ○ ultimatum game: one player (proposer) given some amount of money → he can divide this money between himself and another player (responder) → responder can accept or reject this division → rejection of division results in no money for both players ○ over many trials in these games, consistent cooperation yields best outcome Heuristics in Decision Making ● heuristics:allow people to simplify complex decisions by following a set of rules ○ satisficing making a choice that is “good enough” simply because there are too many choices (like grocery shopping) ○ anchoring heuristic: tendency to refer to reference points to bias future judgments (comparing prices of two items to determine value) ○ endowment effect: people require more money when they are selling something they own than they would be willing to spend to buy the same thing ○ framing effect when actual outcomes are held constant but the way in which they are seen differs (people like to choose things that are framed as gains rather than losses)
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'