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by: Eugene Nicolas III


Eugene Nicolas III
GPA 3.94

Joan Herrera

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Joan Herrera
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eugene Nicolas III on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 2010 at University of Florida taught by Joan Herrera in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/206660/bsc-2010-university-of-florida in Biological Sciences at University of Florida.




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Date Created: 09/18/15
BSC 2010 7 Exam I Lectures and Text Pages i lntm m Eluiugy 27 a H Chemistryquife 5mm lemma 46 47 5 W lntruductury iuchemistry Enevvvand Metabahsm 4115g r W mmmmmm 2m Cellular ResEiration ALL energy ultimately comes from the SUN Catabolic gathwa gt Yield energy by oxid zing organic fuels All the primary organic molecules can be consumed as fuel We ll only examine the most common fuel sugar cEHuog Exergonic rxn AG 686 kcallmol of Glucose the energy will be used to generate ATP Energy ul matel Energy 7 Flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and hea m Q leaves as RDJNSZ Catabolic Pathways and Production of ATP The breakdown oforganic molecules is exergonic releases energy Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels Catabolic Pathways One catabolic process fermentation 7 Is a partial degradation of sugars that occurs without oxygen 7 Involves Glycolysis 7 Yields 2 ATPGlucose molecule Catabolic Pathways Cellular respiration 7 Is the most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway 7 Consumes oxygen and organic molecules such as glucose 7 Involves Glycolysis 7 Yields up to 38 ATPGlucose molecule To keep working 7 Cells must regenerate ATP Cellular Reqniration Redox rxns oxidationreduction rxns Transfer of electrons e releases energy stored in organic molecules this energy is ultimately used to generate ATP Oxidation loss of e from one substance Reduction addition of e to another substance NaCgtNa CI39 Na is the reducing agent donates an e to CL CI is the oxidizing agent removes an e from Na Cellular Reqniration Respiration is a redox rxn By oxidizing glucose energy stored in glucose is liberated to make ATP 7 Happens in a series ofenzymecatalyzed steps 7 Coenzyme NAD acts as e shuttle Electron transport chains ETC breaks the energetic fall of e into several energyreleasing steps not one big explosive rxn g 95 r Consists ofmostly proteins embedded in the inner mitochondrial mem rane Overview of Respiration g 96 Redox Reactions Oxidation and Reduction Catabolic pathways yield energy 7 Due to the transfer of electrons The Ele of Redox Redox reactions 7 Transfer electrons from one reactant to another by oxidation and reduction In oxidation 7 A substance loses electrons or is oxidized In reduction 7 A substance gains electrons or is reduced Examples of redox reactions Examples ofredox reactions azl 1 bewmes reduced am eleamquot Some redox reactions Do not completely exchange electrons Change the degree ofelectron sharing in covalent bonds Oxidation of Organic Fuel Molecules During Cellular Respiration During cellular respiration r Glucose is oxidized and oxygen is reduced l bewms mm EiH pio D murmuqu bewmes New Stepwise Energy Harvest via NAD and me Electron Transport Chain Cellular respiration ose in a series of steps 7 Oxidizes gluc power work rather than losing it from sugar to i one explosive reacti Electrons from orga compounds Are usually lirst transferred to NAD a coenzyme Mme Puma mm H u an R5 WNW undillanalNADH N mmm mm mm a Ewe NADH the reduced form of NAD Passes the electrons to the electron transport chain So it is an electron shuttle and moves electrons to the ETC 39om both glycolysis and horn the citric acid cycle If electron transfer is not ste wise If electron transfer is not stepwise r A large release of energy occurs 7 As in the reaction of hydrogen and oxygen to form water was p u m mmmmmmn mL mum The electron trans ort chain ETC Passes electrons in a series of steps instead of in one explosive reaction Uses the energy from the electron transfer to rm ATP Electron Trans ort Chain m mu m NADH pm mm s glreSSE mmuumspm An overview of cellular res ira on ll 39 l A mum Dmsmvwmlm mum mpmw m 5 cum Swim ml slum ml mm PW a s phawharymmn vhvsvwmn phaspmmm A Preview Three Stages of Cellular Rcspira o Respiration is a cumulative function ofthree metabolic stages 7 Glycolysis r The ciiric acid cycle Kreb39s Cycle Stages of Cellular Respiration 1 Glycolysis r Breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate r Produces net 2 ATP and 2 NADH Conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA yields ZNADH 2 The ci ic acid cycle 7 Completes the breakdown of glucose 7 Produces net 2 ATP 6 NADH and 2 FADH2 from 2 Acet CoA Stages of Cellular Respiration 3 Oxidative phosphorylation 7 Is driven bythe electron transport chain receives electrons from NADH and FADHZ r Generates 32 34 ATP An overview of cellular res iration EllD355 W mm mm saturate ml uxmmv phmwmn Mpmm slum m mm a s vhawhaw man Cellular Res ra Glycol sis ampC ric Acid Cycle catabolic pathways that breakdown glucose Glycolysis gt pyruvate coenzymes ATP CAC 9 coenzymes ATP ATP formed by substratelevel phosphorylation g 9 7 enzyme transfers a phosphate group 39om an organic substrate to ADP to make ATP Oxidative Phosphorylation ATP synthesis powered by ETC Makes 90 ofthe 38 ATPs Both lools andthe tr acd cle Can generate ATP by substratelevel phosphorylation We 3 G1 col sis Gymysls harvests manna E by nxmlzlng glucnseln gamma GiucusegtTwuSrcsuuavsauwdlzedKreananuedaTWDWmvaies rwn Ma anhzses nIGymysls Reananee uiucuse o and phusphaie emups usesZATP SpMBrCsUgav MUSVCsugaHsurnevs Glynerzldehyder rrlhnslhme 1mm gt nexl phase hzse s9 ZNAD AZNA HKaphusphaie gruupaddediueachuYZSVCSUEars D e ATP pruduced by sumaieievei phusphuwiaimn Flnzl Prndu s 1mm16lucnse 2 MP o 2 nyrumne o zunnH Glxcolxsis Glycolysis harvests energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate Glycolysis 7 Means Splilling of sugarquot 7 Breaks down glucose inlo pyruvate r Occurs in the cytoplasm oflhe cell Glycolysis Glycolysis consists oftwo major phases 7 Energy investment phase a J 7 Energy payoff phase A closer look at the energy invesunem phase imam Produces Gl eraldehv e 3 phasvhmsm pm We enewvviw vhase new a a ll A closer look at the energy payoffphase mame 2 m M m m m we 52 mvviwmmn m 2 NADH 3m 2 mm amass a Citric acid cycle mm acid cycie cumpieiesme Ewe dmg uxidauun uf urgam mu em es Pyruvate enters mituchundrmn V a active transpun gt unvened m acetyl coenzyme A acem CoA Citric acid cycle aisu Krebs yde Citrate mmzed farm ufmm acid 11 muieeme prudueed Aeem CuA brings Wu c alums in We re gt reeydes uxaiuaeetate gt c alums heave yde as 002 eumpieieiy uxidized Uiumaieiy get co NADH FADHZ and ATP frum the CAC Before the c cle can be 11 Pyruvate must rst be converted to acetyl CoA which hnks the citric acid cycie to giycoiyms Happens W 3 we cataiyzed by a mumenzyme compiex Pmcess was 2 NADH our EH m 2 mm mm a n


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