INTEGRA PRINC BIOL 1
INTEGRA PRINC BIOL 1 BSC 2010
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This 45 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eugene Nicolas III on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 2010 at University of Florida taught by Steven Phelps in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see /class/206661/bsc-2010-university-of-florida in Biological Sciences at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
Exam 1 notes week four 1 Lecture 9 Homeostasis I Thermoregulation and bioenergetics Outline 0 Principles of metabolism 7 Heterotrophs 7 Glycolysis Kreb s cycle electron transport chain 7 Oxidative phosphorylation Bioenergetics Thermoregulation 7 Endothermy ectothermy 7 Physiological and behavioral thermoregulation Principles of heat transfer 7 Surface areavolume ratio 0 Strategies for thermoregulation Feedback mechanisms Conserving energy 7 Torpor estivation Principles of metabolism 0 Cellular respiration is the most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway for the production of ATP in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel Respiration occurs in three metabolic stages ELECTRON TRANSPORT cHAlNAND OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION r Cytosol Substratelevel Su bstraleIevel Oxidative phosphorylalion phosphorylalion phosphorylation COWWNOFMMH saucmm lm mumsth as Wismlncummmys Dr Phelps BSC 2010 Created bV Cue Exam 1 notes week four 7 Glycolysis process of breaking down glucose into 2 pyruvate molecules in the cytosol 7 Krebs cycle breaking down a derivative of pyruvate to into 002 in the mitochondrial matrix 7 Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation both occur in the mitochondia This is where most ofthe ATP is made Electron transport a sequence of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy to make Oxidative phosphorylation the production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain Bioenergetics ATP glucose and glycogen energy currency Remember that ATP glucose and glycogen are different forms of currency ATP is like cash it is readily available but not abundant Glucose is more like a checking account you would have to go through process to convert it into cash Glycogen is like a mutual fund it is the last resort for energy Orglnil molaculas in law Nulrienl molecules In hady cells Cellulnr work cammu mm mum in lIuMlsnlmz a Bcnlamm Cumming Dr Phele BSC 2010 Created bV Cuc Exam 1 notes week four 3 Animals have energy budgets 7 Biosynthesis 7 Water balance 7 Thermoregulation Much ofan animal s energy is converted to heat 7 Much heat lost to environment Thermoregulation Balance energy budgets against bene ts of consistent high temperature 7 For every 10 C change in temperature reaction rates increase by 2 3 times Q10 7 Constant temperature means reliable reaction rates There are two basic bioenergetic strategies used by animals Ectotherms derive their heat from the environment Most fish amphibians reptiles and invertebrates do not have enough metabolic heat to keep their body temperature regulated Less energy cost Endotherms derive their heat from cellular work Most birds and mammals body temperature must remain at a certain level in order to survive Heat is generated by metabolism More energy cost Equating them as cold blooded or warm blood animals is a misnomer Strategies for thermoregulation Ways to regulate temperature Adjust heat exchange with surroundings 7 Vasoconstriction constricting the blood vessels to insulate heat 7 Vasodilation dilation of the blood vessels to emit heat Evaporative heat loss 7 Sweat 7 Pant 7 Bathe skin Change metabolic rate 7 Shivering 7 Brown fat special tissue that is specialized for rapid heat production Dr Phelps BSC 2010 Created by Cue Exam 1 notes week four 4 Behavioral responses 7 Alter position to alter heat exchange or evaporation Conserving energy Torpor is the reduction of activity and temperature to conserve energy 7 Hibernation 7 Estivation 7 Daily torpor Many small animals and birds exhibit this Lecture 11 Homeostasis ll Gas exchange Outline Respiration 7 Respiratory medium 7 Respiratory surface 7 Respiratory organs Respiration in water gills 7 Structure 7 Ventilation 7 Countercurrent exchange Respiration on land lungs and trachea 7 Structure 7 Ventilation Mammalian respiration 7 Breathing 7 Respiratory pigments Integrating respiration 7 Medulla oblongata pons 7 Respiration Gas exchange is uptake of 02 and discharge of 002 diff from cellular respiration Exchange occurs in a respiratom medium and across a respiratom surface Maximize surface area to volume ratios 7 Small animals need less elaborate mechanisms Low metabolic rates reduce need for exchange Dr Phelps BSC 2010 Created by Cue Exam 1 notes week four Aquatic and terrestrial environments differ ter s lower 02 level 7 Water has reduced rates of gas diffus39on 7 Terrestrial animals lose water during respiration Remember different needs met by different respiratory organs Respiratory organs gills Gils are outfoldings of the body suspended in water Because water oxygen is low gills must be ventilated 7 Crayfish and lobsters have paddlelike appendages that drive a current of water over their gills 7 Fish gills are ventilated by a current of water Gill arch Direclinn a water Oxygenpour blond Gill filaments Gas exchange enhanced by countercurrent exchange Dr Phelps BSC 2010 Created by Cuc Exam 1 notes week four 7 6 Res irator or ans lun sand trachea More oxygen means easier to acquire from air Lose much water through evaporation in the lungs One compromise is to place respiratory organs inside 7 Tracheal systems are elaborate open ducts 7 Lungs are large air sacs with a convoluted surface for exchanging gases Respiratory organs lungs Dense net of capillaries just under epithelium Use circulatory system to transport oxygen Evolved multiple times 7 Vertebrates 7 Spiders 7 Terrestrial snails Breathing A frog ventilates its lungs by positivepressure breathing 7 Takes air into mouth 7 Closes mouth and nostrils 7 Pushes air into lungs In contrast mammals use negativepressure breathing 7 Diaphragm contracts 7 Floor drops ribs rise 7 Air gets sucked in Dr Pheln RQC 2010 Created bV Cuc Exam 1 notes week four 7 7 7 Tidal volume Volume of breath Vital caQacltv Maximum tidal volume Residual volume total lung volume vital capacity Circulation and artial ressure of 0 Partial pressure refers to the concentration of a gas 0 Now must face problems associated with low 02 solubility in water Respiratom gigments Respiratory pigments bind Oz 7 Hemocyanin in arthropods 7 Hemoglobin in vertebrates Binding 02 increases uptake in lungs Binding 02 reduces release in target tissue lf CO levels rise pH drops and curve shifts Dr Pheln RQF 2010 Createdb Cm Exam 1 notes week four 8 7 pH drop produced by reaction of CO2 and H20 to make bicarbonate Most free protons given off by bicarbonate absorbed by hemoglobin Most CO2 carried away by hemoglobin At lungs as 002 diffuses away equilibrium shifts and bicarbonate converted to CO2 Understand g 4228 4229 Lecture 11 Homeostasis ll Circulation Overview The case for circulatory systems General strategies 7 Overview Vertebrate circulatory systems 7 Chambers 7 Evolutionary history The human heart 7 Anatomy 7 Contraction Blood vessels 7 General structure 7 Arteries 7 Veins 7 Capillary beds Blood 7 Contents 7 Cell types Circulatory strategies Overview 7 Circulatom uid 7 Vessels 7 Heart 7 Blood pressure 7 Open or closed Dr Phelps BSC 2010 Created by Cue Exam 1 notes week four 9 Circulatory strategies open systems Many insects and other small animals have open circulatom systems There is no distinction between blood and interstitial uid The mixture is called hemolymph 1 or more hearts Blood vessels run into sinuses little openings adjacent to cells Circulatory strategies closed systems Other animals have closed circulatom systems Circulatory uid or blood is kept separate from interstitial uid Vertebrate circulatory systems Closed circulatory systems 2 or more heart chambers Chambers include at least one atn39um At least one ventricle Arteries veins and capillaries Capillam beds for exchange Details of circulatory system reflect phylogeny Vertebrate circulatory systems Human heart Two circuits 7 Pulmonam 7 Systemic Blood enters through atria Blood exits through ventricles Blood movement is restricted by valves 7 Atrioventricular 7 Semilunar Heart contraction is set off by the ring of nodes Dr Phelps BSC 2010 Created by Cue Exam 1 notes week four 10 Anterior 0 Capillaries of vena cava head and lolelimbs Pulmonary Pulmonary artery arlery Capillaries ol righr lung Pulmonary l 39 pulmonary Veln 39 vein Len alrlum Le venlricle Aorta Capillaries cl abdominal organs and hind limbs OwlMth Pearson ganglion lira VDubllihlnu Emlzmncummmg Understand this gure Know blood ow order a Alrlal y39 syn Varrzrrmrlar diastole Snmilunar valves closed 5amilimar yaws 9 ANTIE an Ventricular rrarrrau r a ole uiastal w A mmmal umnlmum m iaimararimziam Dr Pheln R f 2010 Created bV Cuc Exam 1 notes week four 11 Blood vessels General structure includes 3 layers 7 Outer layer of elastic connective tissue 7 Middle layer of smooth muscle 7 Inner layer ofendothelium Arteries 7 Thick walls Veins 7 Valves Capillaries 7 Pores between cells Capillary beds Blood vessels flow Rate of blood ow at any moment is constant across circulatory system 7 Velocity drops as area increases Pressure drops with distance from heart Increased surface area also means increased resistance to ow 7 Further slows ow and dissipates pressure Thick artery walls help maintain high blood pressure ow rate Capillary area reduces blood pressure Veins have low pressure because of capillary resistance 7 Valves contraction of skeletal muscle help return blood Both arteries and veins can have their diameters regulated by contraction of smooth muscle Blood fluid Contains cells suspended in plasma Plasma 90 water 7 Electrolytes salts proteins Three cell types 7 Red blood cells erythrocytes 7 White blood cells immune system 7 Platelets clotting Dr Phelps BSC 2010 Created by Cuc Exam 1 notes week four Cells derived from pluripotent stem cells Low oxygen stimulates release of erythropoetin manufacture of RBCs Dr Phelps BSC 2010 Created bV Cue 12 Exam 1 Notes Page 1 of 33 EXAM ONE Friday September 17 The chemistry of life Cell structure and function Homeostasis I Water nutrition and temperature Homeostasis ll Circulation and gas exchange Lecture 1 Chemistry of Life Outline Basics 0 Atoms o Molecules Covalent bonds Electonegativity Polarity o Interactions between molecules lonic bonds Van der Waal s forces Hydrogen bonds Water 0 Water has high polarity Adhesion and cohesion o Hydeophobic vs hydrophilic molecules 0 Water dissociation pH 09H Influences hydrogen bonding 0 Variation in pH has a major impact on the chemistry of life Carbon chains 0 Properties of carbon Valence electrons o Vary in length branching double bonds and rings 0 Diversity of functional groups 0 Combine to form macromolecules Dr Phelps BSC 2010 Notes Created bV Cue Exam 1 Notes Page 2 of 33 Fundamentals of chemistm Atoms are comprised of orbitals and shells Molecules o Are formed by sharing electrons through covalent bonds 0 The differences in atomic eectronegativity cause an unequal sharing of electrons between atoms 0 An asymmetric distribution of charge results in a molecule s polarity Interactions between molecules 0 ionic bonds NaCl is an example 0 van der Waal s forces weak bonds and only occur only when atoms and molecules are very close together 0 hydrogen bonds H bonds weak bonds Water 0 High polarity of water leads to hydrogen bonding between water H20 molecules 0 Causes cohesion between water molecules 0 Adhesion between water and other polar molecules 0 Hydrophobic vs hydrophilic molecules 0 Hydrophilic water loving molecules are polar enabling them to form H bonds with water 0 Hydrophobic water fearing molecules such as oils and fats are relatively nonpolar Hydrophobic molecules coalesce and form barriers to the movement of hydrophilic molecules 0 Critical to the function of cells organs and organisms 0 Water dissociation H H H3 4 l H r H H Hydronium Hydroxide inn H304 ion OH o Hydronium H30 H o Hydroxide OH H 10 7 M 0 pH is the measure of hydronium ion concentration pH ogH Dr Phele BSC 2010 Notes Created bV Cuc Exam 1 Notes Page 3 of 33 0 Changes in pH alter hydrogen bonding 0 Variation in pH has a major impact on the chemistry of life 0 pH of 16 is acidic pH 7 is nutrual pH 814 basic Carbon 0 Four electrons in its valence shell and four positions unfilled 0 Forms four covalent bonds 0 More covalent bonds make complex molecules possible Small atomic number means it s abundant Readily combines with other common elements to form basic building blocks of life 0 Carbon chains 0 Vary in length branching double bonds and rings 0 Can contain a tremendous diversity of functional groups 0 Functional groups determine function hydroxyl OH carbonyl COH carboxyl COOH amino NH2 sulfhydryl SH phosphate PO4239 Lecture 2 Macromolecules Outline Dr Phelps BSC 2010 Notes Built by dehydration Broken down by hydrolysis Categories of biological maromolecules Carbohydrateds Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids Carbohydrates Monosaccharides Polysaccharides Lipids Fatty acides Triacylglycerol Phospholipids Created bV Cue Exam 1 Notes Page 4 of 33 Steroids 0 Proteins made ofamino acids Carboxyl group Amino group Variable group Peptide bond Levels of structure Nucleic acid polymers of nucleotides RNA nucleotides have a ribose backbone DNA a deoxyribose backbone Nitrogenous bases Structure and function of macromolecules Built by dehydration o Connects monomers by taking out H20 0 Broken down by adding water Hydrolysis hydro water and lysis break 0 Breaking down something with water reverse of dehydration There are four major categories of biological macromolecules 1 Carbohydrates include sugars and their polymers 0 Energy harvested from monosacchan39des glucose galatose etc 0 Energy stored in polysaccharides glycogen starch 2 Lipids many are made from fatty acids joined to glycerol molecules All lipids are hydrophobic Lipids are made from fatty acids 0 Fatty acids 0 long nonpolar hydrocarbon chains 0 terminal carboxyl group 0 Fats are composed of three fatty acid chains bound to a glycerol molecule a fat is called a triacylglycerol o A phospholipid is made of hydrophobic tails and a hydrophyllic head 0 Composition of a phosplipids i 2 fatty acids tails ii Glycerol the head iii Phosphate group iv Functional group o Spontaneously form a phospholipid bilayer o Other lipids like steroids are synthesized from cholesterol Dr Phelps BSC 2010 Notes Created bV Cue Exam 1 Notes Page 5 of 33 3 Proteins are polymers of amino acids 0 composition ofa protein amino group carboxyl group variable group 0 amino acids are joined by a peptide bond Peptides grow by addition of amino acids at the carboxyl terminus 0 Proteins have 4 levels of structure 0 Primary amino acid sequence 0 Secondary Arrangements of polypeptides into regular structural units Alpha helix Beta pleated sheet 0 arrangements of polypeptides into regular structural units 0 Tertiary higher level interactions of primary and secondary structure 0 Quarternary combinations of protein subunits into tight complexes Lecture 3 MarcromoleculesI enzymes and metabolism Outline 0 Nucleic acid polymers of nucleotides 0 RNA nucleotides have a ribose backbone 0 DNA a deoxyribose backbone o Nitrogenous bases 0 Metabolism and polymerization o Catabolic pathways 0 Anabolic pathways 0 Enzymes 0 Energy and biological work 0 Kinetic and potential energy 0 Laws ofthermodynamics 0 Free Energy 0 Enzymes are catalysts o Endothermic and exothermic reactions Dr Phelps BSC 2010 Notes Created bV Cue Exam 1 Notes Page 6 of 33 0 Energy of activation 0 Controlling metabolism through enzymes 0 Abundance o Conformation allosteric and covalent modi cation Still more polymers Nucleic acids 0 Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA 0 Ribonucleic acid RNA 0 Store information 0 To be passed on to daughter cells 0 To be translated into proteins Structure and function of nucleic acids 0 Polymers of nucleotides 0 RNA nucleotides have a ribose backbone 0 DNA a deoxyribose backbone 0 DNA and RNA are composed oftwo types of nitrogenous bases 0 Purines nitrogenous bases have 2 carbon rings A G o Pyrimidines 1 ring C T are only present in DNA U only present in RNA 0 Nitrogenous bases act as functional groups 0 DNA has tremendous structural stability because bases form hydrogen bonds AT and CG 0 CG clamp ifa DNA has composed of more Cs amp Gs it will be more stable Polymerization of nucleic acids Does NOT directly involve dehydration Nucleotides are activated by a charged triphosphate group Energy from the triphosphate bond is used to drive polymerization Dr Phelps BSC 2010 Notes Created bV Cue F ami Nryts Page 7 of 33 When DNA is used to make more DNA the polymerization is called replication Transcription is when DNA is used to make RNA Translation is when RNA is used to make protein Every protein has a corresponding gene swamquot 39 1 014quot mm a mum by a 5mm Wm Dnnulng um um quotum 8 Movement a quotIRMA m rmquot w wheat vote 0 hymen 51 mmquot Replication Transcroption amp translation Introduction to Metabolism The chemical reactions that take place in an organism comprise its metabolism Metabolic pathways alter molecules in a series of steps 0 Catabolic pathways release energy by breaking down complex molecules 0 Anabolic pathways consume energy to build complicated molecules 0 Enzymes facilitate every step of either pathway Dr Phele BSC 2010 Notes Created bV Cuc Examl Notes Pa 9 8 of 33 Energy Energy is the capacity to do work to move matter against opposing forces Kinetic energy is the energy of motion Potential energy is the energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure 0 Chemical energy is a form of potential energy in molecules because of the arrangement of atoms Law of Thermod namics The rst law of thermod namics states that energy cannot be created or destroyed 0 We must acquire energy from other sources The second law of thermodynamics states that every energy transformation makes the universe more disordered o For something to happen without energy input it must increase disorder 0 Maintaining complex bodies requires ener 0 Free energyis the portion of energy that can be harnessed to perform work Thermodynamics and metabolism Exergonic reactions release energy free energy goes down Endergonic reactions require energy free energy goes up Folenlial energy at nreleeulee e Pate nl energy or molecules gress of the reaction a Progress of ihe reaction gt a Exergonic reaction b Endergonic reaction energy released AGltD energy required AGgt0 gimme Pelllson marlin in D hllshlnw r Buvllsmln Cummlnvs Dr Pheln RQF 2m 0 Notes Created by One Exam 1 Notes Page 9 of 33 The conversion of ATP to ADP and Pi causes a reduction in free energy For many chemical reactions there is an energy barrier called the energy of activation Enzymes are proteins that facilitate metabolism by reducing the energy of activation How enzymes work Enzymes reduce the energy of activation by stabilizing reaction intermediates with an active site 0 Signi cancnt because of energy barriers we can store energy in the complex state of of molecules and we can use the stored energy to perform work How metabolism is regulated oCatabolic pathways release energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds oAnabolic pathways consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler compounds 0 Enzymes facilitate every step of either pathway We change their abundance Transcription translation and degradation of enzymes We change their shape Allosteric activators alter tertiary or quarternary structure by binding in a way that stabilizes the active site of an enzyme Allosteric inhibitors destabilize the active site of an enzyme Covalent modifications include adding or removing phosphate groups Lecture 4 Structure and function of cells 0 Overview 0 Eukaryote vs prokaryote o Surfaceareatovolume 0 Cellular compartments Dr Phelps BSC 2010 Notes Created bV Cue Exam 1 Notes Page 10 of 33 o Organelles o Nucleus amp ribosomes 0 DNA chromatin amp chromosomes 0 Nucleolus ribosomes o Endomembrane systems 0 Smooth amp Rough ER Functions 0 Golgi Body Cisternae cis vs trans o Lysosomes functions I vacuoles o Nonendomembrane system 0 Peroxisomes function growth Overview of cell structure All cells are surrounded by a glasma membrane gm is the semifluid substance within the membrane All cells contain chromosomes made of DNA and associated proteins All cells have ribosomes tiny organelles that make proteins using the instructions from messenger RNA Dr Phelps BSC 2010 Notes Created bV Cue Exam 1 Notes Page 11 of 33 niboeomes Plasma membrane a b A man seclian through Ihe bacterium Bacillus coagulans TEM a A lypi radshaped merlum Figure above is a prokaryote cell ENDOPLASMIC Chroma n RETICULUM ER e i Nuclaolus NUCLEUS Nuclear envelope Peroxisome Golgi apparalus Plasma membrane A Aj MlcruvllIl Microlllaments Intermediate filaments Milochondrion No In animal cells Chlom lash 1 Lysosnme genquot dilute and tonuplasl a wn CYTOSKELETON Plasma The figure above is a eukaryote cell Com arin eukar otes to roka otes A The locations of chromosomes differ 39 In eukaryotes chromosomes are contained in a membraneenclosed nucleus 39 ln prokaryotes the DNA is concentrated in the nucleoid No membrane separates it from the rest of the cell Dr Phelps BSC 2010 Notes Created bv Cuc Exam 1 Notes Page 12 of 33 B In Euraryotes o Chromosomes are within a membranous nuclear envelope 0 The cytoplasm is the region between nucleus amp plasma membrane All material within prokaryotic membrane is cytoplasm o A variety of membranebound organelles of specialized form and function These membranebound organelles absent in prokaryotes C Surfaceareatovolume Differ greatly in size eukaryotes gt prokaryotes Reflects a surfaceareatovolume tradeoff D Cellular compartments Enhanced complexity allows eukaryotes to get by with smaller ratios larger size Nucleus and ribosomes The nucleus 0 contains most genes o Is enclosed by double membrane Nuclear pores are formed by fusing of double membrane 0 Can allow macromolecules to pass lnside ofnucleus lined by nuclear lamina a network of intermediate laments that maintain shape V thin nucleus DNA and associated proteins form brous material chromatin When cell prepares to divide chromatin bers coil up into chromosomes ln nucleus is region of densely packed chromatin the nucleolus 7 ln nucleolus ribosomal RNA rRNA is synthesized and combined with proteins to form ribosomal subunits Subunits pass through nuclear pores to cytoplasm where they combine to form ribosomes Ribosomes use mRNA tRNA to perform protein synthesis Dr Phelps BSC 2010 Notes Created bV Cue Exam 1 Notes Page 13 of 33 Ribosomes carry out protein synthesis translation Made oerNA and proteins Use mRNA as template Use tRNA to translate genetic code into amino acid sequence Can be bound to rough endoplasmic reticulum or free in cytosol 4 Endomembrane systems Endoplasmic reticulum lnvaginations of nuclear membrane Rough ER 7 Appearance due to bound ribosomes 7 A site of protein transcription 7 Makes proteins headed for membrane or for secretion Smooth ER 7 Does not include ribosomes 7 Functionally diverse Makes lipids Metabolizes carbohydrates Becomes calcium store in muscle cells Detoxi es poisons Golgi body Eside receives vesicles from the ER Cisternae are like stacks of pita each modifying molecules in different ways Adding and modifying sugars Adds molecular tags to molecules to sort them Trans side sends vesicles to destination organelle Lysosomes Dr Phelps BSC 2010 Notes Originate from Golgi Fuse with food vacuoles to digest ingested matter Digestion via hydrolysis Very low pH 50 Facilitates hydrolysis Ensures that escaped enzymes can t function in normal cytosol Created bV Cue Exam 1 Notes Pa e 14 0f 33 Smooth ER Nuclear envelope Golgi apparatus Plasma membrane Lysosome Figure shows the relationship between the endomembrane system 5 Other membraneous organelles Peroxisomes 0 Are NOT part of endomembrane system Make H202 Highly reactive Breaks down fatty acids 0 Grow by incorporating lipids and proteins made in cytosol Lecture 539 Structure and function of cells Outline Mitochondria amp Chloroplasts o Repiration amp photosynthesis 0 Double membrane Dr Phele BSC 2010 Notes Created bV Cuc Exam 1 Notes Page 15 of 33 o DNAribosomes o Semiautonomous growth Eukaryote complexity 0 Nuclear membrane 0 Endosymbiosis rRNA ribosome biochem Circular DNA Enzymestransport o Diversi cation amp compartmentalization Cytoskeleton 0 Functions are dynamic o Microtubles microfilaments and intermediate filaments 0 Motor molecules Cell surfaces 0 Extracellular matrix 0 Intercellularjunctions Membrane structure 0 Fluid mosaic mode 0 Integral and peripheral proteins 0 Membrane fluidity o Membrane sidedness Mitochondria and chloroplasts Mitochondria and chloroplasts are the organelles that convert energy to forms that cells can use for work Both are not part of the endomembrane system Their proteins come primarily from free ribosomes in the cytosol and a few from their own ribosomes Both organelles have small quantities of DNA that direct the synthesis of the polypeptides produced by these internal ribosomes Both grow and reproduce as semiautonomous organelles Mitochondria Dr Phelps BSC 2010 Notes Created bV Cue Exam 1 Notes Page 16 of 33 Mitochondria are the sites of cellular respiration generating ATP from the catabolism of sugars fats and other fuels in the presence of oxygen Mitochondria have a smooth outer membrane and a highly folded inner membrane the cristae 7 This creates a fluidfilled space between them 7 The cristae present ample surface area for the enzymes that synthesize ATP The inner membrane encloses the mitochondrial matrix a fluidfilled space with DNA ribosomes and enzymes Chloroplasts Chloroplasts found in plants and eukaryotic algae are the site of photosynthesis 7 They convert solar energy to chemical energy and synthesize new organic compounds from CO2 and H20 to make glucose The chloroplast is one of several members of a generalized class of plant structures called plastids 7 Amyopasts store starch in roots and tubers 7 Chromopasts store pigments for fruits and flowers The chloroplast produces sugar via photosynthesis 7 Chloroplasts gain their color from high levels of the green pigment chlorophyll Origins of eukaryote complexity Both mitochondria and plastids have the following in common Have DNA that can replicate independently of nuclear DNA Have ribosomes derived from their own DNA Have double membranes Dr Phele BSC 2010 Notes Created bV Cuc Exam 1 Notes Page 17 of 33 Why do they BOTH have those qualities Both mitochondria and plastids Have specialized inner membranes that have enzymes and transport proteins similar to those found in prokaryotes Have ribsomes with antibiotic sensitivities interferes with protein synthesis that are similar to those found in prokaryotes Are thought to have arisen through endosymbiosis Symbiosis is a close interaction between two species in which both bene t It is coopera ive Endosymbl39osis refers to a symbiotic relationship that leads to one organism engul ng another It is usually refers to the origin ofmitochondria and plastids Nuclear envelope Endoplasmic rellculum Nucleus Milachondrion Inlolding Anceslf l or plasma Dholnsvmhellc membrane ll eukaryole Plaslld Engul39lng or pnurcsyulnelic pmkaryele cyloulusm sngulllug ul aernhil A helelolmphic 70quot Ancenral prekaryme Prokaryolo Plasma memb nl Mltochondnon hushI helemtrophic eukarlmo g 284 Dr Pheln R 2010 Notes Createdb Cuc Exam 1 Notes Page 18 of 33 Origins of eukaryote complexity continues mu mquot DNA sequence that codes for rRNA and proteins suggests 0 These genes are more closely related to homologous genes in bacteria than they are to genes in the nucleus 0 There have been multiple endosymbiotic events Consequences of this increase in cellular complexity e compartmentalization of function Different organelles can specialize for different things and by changing the abundance or character of particular organelles cells can specialize and contribute to distinct tissues C oskeleton o The cytoskeleton is a complex network of protein filaments found throughout the cytoplasm It 0 Stabilizes shape Cell scaffolding Anchors organelles o Generates movement Changes cell shape muscle cells 0 Moves ce cilia flagella o Directs intracellular traffic Dr Phele BSC 2010 Notes Created bV Cuc Exam 1 Notes Page 19 of 33 directs vesicles formation of Golgi plasma membrane Microtubules Microtubules are hollow rods made oftubulin Major provider of pushing structural support Make up centrioles which separate chromosomes during cell division Major component of motility structures like cilia and flagella Use dynein as molecular motor Intermediate laments stabilize cell shape and anchor organelles Make up the nuclear lamina lnclude diverse kinds of proteins Most stable of cytoskeletal elements Microfilaments are polymers ofthe molecule actin Contribute to cell shape by pulling Use myosin as molecular motor 7 Important for muscle contraction Movement requires molecular motors Molecular motors are proteins that change shape when phosphorylated by ATP Drive movement of vesicles from one organelle to the next Motor molecules Motor molecule Microlubule ATP powered of cytoskeleton Molar molecule Microlubule ATP powered of cytoskeleton b Movement requires moecular motors Molecular motors are proteins that change shape when phosphorylated by ATP Drive movement of vesicles from one organelle to the next Dr Phelps BSC 2010 Notes Created bV Cuc Exam 1 Notes Page 20 0f 33 Lecture 6 Membrane structure and function Outline Membrane structure Fluid mosaic model Membrane proteins Membrane lipids Selective permeability Passive transport Diffusion Osmosis Facilitated diffusion Active transport De nition Cotransport Movement of large molecules Endocytosis Exocytosis Membrane structure and function Fluid mosaic model cell membrane is a phospholipid bilayer with proteins embedded in one or both halves Dr Phelps BSC 2010 Notes Created bV Cue Exam 1 Notes Pa e 21 of 33 roe Kniie f a if r l a 1 Plasma Flhsrs cl gnaw membrane P 9 mmcellulal or cell Prowplnsmwl marle 2cm o v r E face v f axrerior b Phospholinid Membrane monolayer r protein P Face Spray wim platinum and and carbon to cleale replica 39 C EM or Pfaoe 1221 ohaIesreml OUTSIDE CELL lunar Perip heral Integral quotION7 ilye39 OVTOFLASM protein protein Above Fig shows Fluid Mosaic model Above fig shows the membrane strc Wspan both halves of lipid bilayer Peripheral proteins loosely associated with hydrophilic portion of integral protein Proteins are amphipathic both hydrophobic and hydrophilic Hydrophobic portions anchored in the membrane Hydrophilic portions in cytosol or on extracellular surface Fluidity of the membrane shaped by particular phospholipids used and by abundance of cholesterol Cell membranes are sided Each half of bilayer differs in composition Proteins have a clear direction Outer surface has carbohydrates Asymmetric orientation begins during synthesis of new membrane in the endoplasmic The cell is encased in lipids in orderto control the movement into and out of the cell Selective permeability Dr Phele BSC 2010 Notes Created bV Cuc Exam 1 Notes Page 22 of 33 Selective permeability determines the permeability of a membrane to a particular molecule Not all small molecules can cross and some cross more easily in one direction than another Permeability depends on interaction of molecule with the hydrophobic core ofthe membrane Hydrophobic molecules dissolve in lipid bilayer and cross easily Hydrocarbons eg steroids 002 and Oz lons and polar molecules pass through with difficulty small polar molecules like water larger molecules like glucose and other sugars Ions like K Proteins can regulate the transport of ions and polar molecules Fig info Top is passive the bottom is facilitated diffusion The purple structure is a protein that assist the molecules Passive transport Passive transport is the movement of molecules across membrane without using energy Includes diffusion and facilitated diffusion Diffusion is the tendency of molecules of any substance to spread out in the available space 7 Diffusion driven by kinetic energy thermal motion or heat of molecules Movements of individual molecules are random However movement of a population of molecules may be directional In the absence of other forces a substance will diffuse down its concentration gradient Dr Phelps BSC 2010 Notes Created by Cuc Exam 1 Notes Page 23 of 33 7 This spontaneous process decreases free energy and increases entropy by creating a randomized mixture If solutes are uncharged each substance dif39fuses down its own concentration gradient Selective permeable membrane Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane a kind of passive transport called osmosis Solutions can be hypotonic hypertonic or isotonic 7 These are relative terms 7 Tap water is hypertonic compared to distilled water but hypotonic when compared to sea water 7 Solutions with the same solute concentration are isotonic Osmosis can lead to a change in pressure Regulating water balance is critical to cell integ mum mum Immnlc smugquot Hypnrmm39c mlullan Hypmonlc Nypmunlc solmlon solAllan Animal u mm cull ScicllvIy panueauia mlmbnnu Turgi mum meow Facilitated diffusion is the passive movement of molecules down a concentration gradient via a transport protein Channel proteins gated channels Allosteric transporters Lecture 739 Homeostasis l Water balance and waste disposal Outline Active transport Dr Phele BSC 2010 Notes Created bV Cuc Exam 1 Notes Page 24 of 33 7 De nition 7 Cotransport Movement of large molecules 7 Endocytosis 7 Exocytosis Nitrogenous waste 7 Ammonia 7 Urea 7 Uric acid Osmoregulation 7 Saltwater 7 Freshwater 7 Terrestrial Excretory systems 7 Tubules Kidneys in detail Movement of small molecules Active transport moves molecules against their concentration gradient using energy Allosteric transport 7 Transport protein changes conformation in response to ATPdependent phosphorylation Cotransport 7 Concentration gradient of one solute actively maintained w A TP 7 Potential energy in concentration gradient used to change protein shape and transport second solute 7 Role ofATP is indirect Movement of largegrougs of molecules Exocytosis move molecules outward Dr Phelps BSC 2010 Notes Created bV Cue Exam 1 Notes Page250f33 Involves movement of vesicles from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane Vesicles fuse with the membrane and dump their contents 0 Important means of secreting enzymes hormones and neurotransmitters Endocytosis moves molecules into the cell 0 involves taking in extracellular material by forming vesicles 0 There are 3 types of endocytosis Phagocytosis engulfing specific Pinocytosis drinking nonspecific Receptormediated endocytosis highly specific mmmum moms FLUquot Pseudnpn lum other panlcl vacuolu Plasma membrane o t gag u u 39 39 Vesicle bPlnocymsls a 4 0 Coalproteln ecaplorf M Guam 2 0 I veslcl 4 u inWWW mm Nitrogenous wastes o quot nous wastes is the 39 39 39 of food products particularly proteins and nucleic acids Leaves behind ammonia NH4 o Ammonia is basic soluble in water and very toxic o It is small enough to pass through cell membranes 0 Different species gets rides of waste differently 3 different excretion techniques 1 Fishes and other aquatic species generally have an abundance of water and can let the ammonia diffuse out passively Cheap in terms of transport and metabolism Dr Phelps BSC 2010 Notes Created by Cue Exam 1 Notes Page 26 of 33 2 Mammals amphibians sharks and some bony fishes combine the waste products 002 and NH3 to make urea Much less toxic than ammonia Low concentrations in environs can transport passively Size and polarity keep it from passing through cell membranes without transport Requires some metabolic investment to produce 3 Birds insects and many reptiles produce uric acid insoluble in water despite the carbonyl groups Can be sequestered and secreted with very little loss of water Most ef cient in terms ofwater retention but expensive metabolically Osmoregulation Osmolarity is the concentration of solutes in water An animal must decide whether to regulate Osmoregulators its osmolarity or conform osmoconformers to environmental variation Osmoconformers typically live in osmotically predictable environments Eg Deep depths in the ocean Osmoregulators face differing demands depending on their environments Eg Fish living closer to the surface Excretory systems Tubules are small tubes that are in close contact with transport epithelium and the blood supply Blood is ltered by transport epithelium Filtrate is collected Valuable molecules reabsorbed by trans epith Additional waste products may be secreted into excretory tubule The remaining concentrated fluid is excreted Dr Phelps BSC 2010 Notes Created bV Cue Exam 1 Notes Page 27 of 33 Henal medulla Pnelarior van cava 7 HerII anery and vein Kidney Renal cortex Anna Renal pelvisv ureter Urinary bladder Urallna 7 399 Bowman39s capsule G39amm39 ma a Cortical Pm imalluhule quotempmn39y nepnmn f erenlaflegole 7 7 r WNW 39 quot quotquot3 a quotV I capillaries Ellerenl aneriole lralllglclrllerulus 1 Distal l enalconex Branch at renal vein r collecring duct Descending quotMb Renal medulla Loop al Henle Ascending limb Vnu K rem mynmnmeersnn Eamon in MbllsnlnvzcEs llzmlncummlngi Gross anatomy Renal cortex 7 Outer part of kidney 7 Approximately isotonic to blood Renal medulla 7 Inner part of kidney 7 Hyperosmotic Nephron 7 Functional unit of kidney Functional unit of kidney 1 Glomerulus Blood ltered Proteins and cells left in blood Water ions urea go into ltrate Rate regulated by w Dr Phelps BSC 2010 Notes Created bV Cuc Exam 1 Notes Page 28 of 33 2 Proximal tubule Water ions nutrients reabsorbed ltrate volume reduced pH regulated Wastes secreted into ltrate Urea NOT reabsorbed 3 Descending loop of Henle Permeable to water not salts Salts and urea concentrated in the ECF of inner medulla Water movement possible because of osmotic gradient 4 Ascending loop of Henle Permeable to salt not water Poorly permeable to urea Reabsorbs NaCl 5 Distal tubule Regulates pH Regulates amount of NaCl and K Susceptible to ADH aldosterone Water reuptake regulates final volume of urine 6 Collecting duct Final reabsorption of NaCl water High urea diffuses out of filtrate maintains osmotic gradient Water leaves filtrate determining nal concentration of urine 1 The loop of Henle concetrates urea in filtrate 2 Resorption of that urea provides a steep osmotic gradient in medulla 3 Steep gradient means a concentrated urine Dr Phelps BSC 2010 Notes Created bV Cue Exam 1 Notes Page 29 of 33 o Proximal tubule Obiml lubuls Nacl Nutrients O K moi Hco CORTEX o Descending limb oi loop ol Hanle OUTER MEDULLA Cwmunle Pearson Equation ln Dubllmlnua Emlamlnculnmmg myllyncucmmnEluullen in publlmlnyaxamlzm Fig 4422 Fig 4423 For Fig 4422 Desending loop notice how the concentration is increasing due to H20 moving out passively Ascending loop the concentration is decreasing because NaCl one ofthe solute is moving out Notice how NaCl is actively transported out of the tube Why Because the concentration inside of the tube is lower than the outside concentration thus requiring energy to move the solute out Lecture 8I Animal nutrition Outline Heterotrophs require speci c foods Nutrient acquisition 7 Basic processes 7 Animal diversity Four major processes of nutrient acquisition 7 Ingestion 7 Digestion 7 Absorption Dr Phelps BSC 2010 Notes Created by Cuc Exam 1 Notes Page 30 of 33 Homeostatic feedback mechanisms Heterotrophs VS Autotrophs 0 Plants are autotrophs they make their own food 0 Autotrophs can synthesize any macromolecule they need from basic organic building blocks 0 Animals are heterotrophs they get their food from other organisms o Heterotrophs take shortcuts by stealing key nutrients from other organisms Heterotrophs reguire specific foods 0 The nutritional needs of an animal vary with its life histom Life history describes what the animal does For ex Life history of a human is that they are omnivores o Nutrients that can t be synthesized by an animal are referred to as essential Essential nutrients includes certain Amino acids All are available from animal sources I Plants are less reliable sources A A diverse vegetarian diet balances the shortcomings of any one food source Fatty acids Animals are unable to synthesize certain fatty acids Double bonds between adjacent carbons Must obtain from their food Abundant in most food sources 01th Heterotrophs require speci c foods Vitamins 1 Vitamins are small organic molecules that are often incorporated into proteins to complete their Dr Phelps BSC 2010 Notes Created bV Cue Exam 1 Notes Page 31 of 33 tertiary structure 2 They are required in very small amounts 3 Can be either watersoluble or fatsoluble a Overcomsumption of fatsoluble vitamins can be toxic to the body 4 Heterotrophs require specific foods Minerals 1 Simple inorganic nutrients usually required in small amounts 2 Some like calcium and phosphorous used for ATP are required in large amounts Four maior processes of nutrient l Ingestion o The morphology of ingestion structures vary greatly with animal diet In vertebrates specializations of the teeth jaws and tongues are particularly common momquot Main points 0 Herbivores have molars to grind food 0 Carnivores have canines to rip tear meat 2 Digestion o Begins with salivary amylase in mammals Dr Phele BSC 2010 Notes Created bV Cuc Exam 1 Notes Page 32 of 33 The stomach is important for digestion even though it primarily used for storage and mechanical preparation of food Most digestion and absorption occurs in the small intestine Animals lack enzymes needed to digest cellulose Herbivores have specialized storage areas to facilitate digestion They also have a longer cecum to give bacteria time to break down the vegetation break down cellulose Structures aiding digestion A Digestion Stomach Ruminants cows hoatzins also have symbiotic microorganisms that can 0 Secretes HCI and pepsinogen from separate cells 0 When these two mix pepsinogen is cleaved to form active pepsin B Digestion Small intestine are mixed hydrolysis Acid chym lt P mm mm Duodenum o mmquot mmquot fig 4116 3 Absorption Dr Phele BSC 2010 Notes Smmlch Funnies Begins with duodenum where bile chyme and pancreaticjuices Digests proteins fats carbohydrates and nucleic acids through Mombnnbbound mmquot m nnumnlmlnnu m lt 0 szinoa Lumun 1 dun nnum W fig 4118 Created bV Cuc Exam 1 Notes Page 33 of 33 o Abundant blood vessels and active transport allow the small intestine to absorb nutrients 0 Surface area for absorption increased by M and microvilli smaller of the two folds Feed back 0 Feedback ensures that available food stores are mobilized during times of need and stored in times of plenty o A variety of hormones including insulin and glucagon also regulate nutrition by regulating feeding behavior and food preferences Dr Phelps BSC 2010 Notes Created bV Cue
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