Week Ten Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grace Gibson on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3100 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Thomas Britt in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Advanced Experimental Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 03/12/16
Quasi-Experimental Design the IV is naturally manipulated (not by you) the experimenter doesn’t have control of the IV there’s non-random assignment this creates the possibility for confounds there are three types: nonequivalent control group design, natural experiments, and time series design in a nonequivalent control group design, the manipulation is a program of some kind o the researcher has control over the active manipulated group, but not the control group o the non-random assignment is basically what makes this a quasi-experimental design o e.g. a school psychologist that is testing the effect of a drug intervention program on drug use might use their school as the manipulated one that goes through the program and another school as the control school o the control group might be the same on some key demographics, but you can never really be sure this control group is the same on all dimensions is possible these differences between groups can be confounds o pre/post design: looking at drug use before and after the intervention (just looking at the manipulated group; there’s no control group) o one time study: measuring both groups after the program you’re not taking into account what the schools were like before the program o if you have both groups and do pre/post test for each, you’re controlling for all these factors natural experiments are the results of events like terrorist attacks, hurricanes, etc… o these are naturally occurring manipulations o typically compare people before and after significant events o someone looked into the effect of bomb attacks on PTSD and anxiety the different groups included people who didn’t have to take shelter, people who had like a minute to take shelter, and people who had like fifteen seconds there’s no real control group here this is not correlational because the bombing occurred correlation studies has no “event” that it follows o Galea and Kessler studied the psychological effects of Katrina on pre-Katrina residents five months after Katrina, 50% had anxiety-mood disorder and 30% had PTSD a year later, these percentages had gotten worse even though they didn’t have pre-Katrina scores, they could find the effect of Katrina time series designs are not specific to quasi-experimental designs, but they are commonly used o there are multiple pre-post test measures o these studies look for trends overtime o Interrupted Time Series with Reversal: pretests, start the program, stop the program, posttests o this is a quasi-experimental design because there is no control group o challenges: you can sensitize people to the measures if you do it this often o there are some technical concerns about removing an intervention if it was doing good for the participants Single Case Research there are several criticisms of group designs: o if you show that a certain manipulation has an effect, you’re showing that the difference between two means is significant o the results don’t generalize to everyone, but to group behavior o group designs don’t study the variability of behavior in an individual over time o if you can’t do a manipulation of an individual, then it must not be important researchers are often interested in predicting individual behavior behaviorism is really built on this approach Piaget developed his theory of cognitive development by watching his children single case research studies one individual, introducing and removing the independent variable over time Video: o Levels of IV: 8 hours sleep, 6 30 min naps a day, 10 hour sleep bonus, 6 30 min naps a day o DVs: self-report ratings, performance tests, type of sleep (brainwaves) Types of Single Case Research o ABA: similar to a quasi-experimental design but with one person (introduce the IV and then remove it while taking measurements) o ABAB: replicate the study within one person o AB1AB2: two different levels of IV Advantages: o able to show effect of IV in each person examined o can replicate findings within the study of one individual Disadvantages: o there’s a question of generalization o you can’t examine moderations o involves the introspection of patterns rather than statistical tests
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